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spiegazione discorso



contesto storico

malcolm X


He embodies one of the most representative figures of Black Nationalism, his ideas are adopted by Black Power movements within the broader civil rights movement. Baptist preacher Earl Little is an independent preacher and is a member of UNIA; In his youth, due to violence by white extremists, he lost three brothers to violent deaths and an eye. Firmly convinced that black people in the U.S. cannot obtain dignity or freedom, he educates his children to these values.

vita e contesto


nationality. From 1959 to 1962 he intensified his propaganda activity, going to speak in universities, and became an important element of the movement but disliked by other exponents. In 1963 he left the organization due to disagreements with the leader. In 1964 he made the pilgrimage to Mecca and founded his own religious movement, the Muslim Mosque Inc. He was killed during a rally on February 21, 1965.

in making people aware of this, inviting the brothers not to try to resemble whites and not to favor their economic activities, avoiding smoking, drinking and taking drugs, in order to regain political and social lucidity. In 1963 he detached himself from the political and social vision of the movement, which he considered too limited, and in 1964 he created the Organization for Afro-American Unity, characterized by an international scope such as to give voice to all black populations independently

Malcolm X emerged in the early 1950s as an exponent of the Black Muslims, an organization that united religious demands with the social and political demands of black nationalism. According to this organization, history has been "cleared up," that is, handed down only from the point of view of whites. His activity as a preacher (one of the main activities of the association is also the continuous and personal assistance for drug addicts, to achieve total detoxification) consists of

la gioventù

the card or the gun

The Card or the Gun" is the title given by Malcolm X himself to this speech of his, important, among other things, because it contains the affirmation that elements of black nationalism were increasingly part of the NAACP and the Core. The congress of black nationalists, which Malcolm announced in his speech for August 1964, was never convened.

This is an opening presentation, you will rightly tell me. It is, but it's not just that. The climate of the time and the cause that emerges in this introductory passage make it clear that presenting oneself is not enough: it is necessary to reinforce, to support, the examples of other activists – with their cultural origins and the causes they support – who can act as predecessors to endorse the strength of such an initiative.

in Georgia and at the same time is the head of another black civil rights organization; Just as Reverend Galamison – I think you've heard him mentioned – is another Christian pastor in New York who was also deeply involved in the school boycott to combat segregation, well, I too am a pastor, not a Christian but a Muslim, and I believe in action on all fronts by all means necessary."

This is quite a long speech, which is why I have identified 3 fundamental steps to analyze together:1. "I am still a Muslim, Islam is still my religion. This is my personal faith. Just as Adam Clayton Powell is a Christian pastor who directs the Abyssinian Baptist Church in New York, but at the same time participates in the political struggle for the conquest of black rights in this country, in the same way that Dr. Martin Luther King is a Christian pastor in Atlanta and

analisi discorso

– "hell" – in which all of them will live regardless of their social status. This is the focus of the speech.

Here we go. The focus is clear. We are here to talk about this and we have the right to do so by virtue of what was announced at the beginning. This is the clear message of Malcolm X, which on a technical level is a direct consequence of the arguments presented at the beginning. In this step, he manages to bring attention back to the issue at hand by doing another impeccable operation: he calls into question those directly involved, lets his interlocutors glimpse the unavoidable conditions

In posh areas or in the ghetto, you are also in this hell, just like me. We are all in the same condition and we will all have to live in the same hell that the same man has arranged for us. That man is the white man, and all of us have suffered here in this country from political oppression, economic exploitation, and social degradation at the hands of the white man. Saying these things does not mean that we are against whites as such, but against exploitation, against degradation and oppression".

2. "Although I am still a Muslim, I have not come here tonight to talk about my religion or to try to change your beliefs on the matter. I have not come here to discuss what divides us because it is time to erase our disagreements and to realize that we all have the same problem, a common problem, a problem that will force you to live in this hell whether you are Baptist, Methodist, Muslim, or Nationalist. It doesn't matter if you're educated or illiterate, if you live


Here's what's going to happen: two alternatives- the card or the bullets. Thus Malcolm X approaches the close of this first act of his speech. The premises are clear, in the body of the speech are set out all the conditions on which the interlocutors must reflect in order to take action. The future is already in sight and the state of emotional involvement can only be very high.

The kind of boogeyman who can no longer tolerate turning the other cheek".

to you and me to get some votes; The year when all the swindlers of white politics will come here to our communities with their false promises, to feed our hopes for appeasement, with their tricks and deceptions, with the false promises they have no intention of keeping. By these methods they feed dissatisfaction that can only lead to one thing: explosion. Now here in America, I'm sorry, Brother Lomax, the

3."If we do not act soon, I think you will have to agree that we will have to use either the card or the bullets. In 1964 it will be the turn of one or the other. It's not that the time is coming: the time has already come. 1964 threatens to be the most explosive year America has ever seen. The most explosive year. Because? And also a political year, it's the year that all the white politicians will go back to the Negro communities to court you and me to get given


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