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Introduction to Phonology

Nivel: A2

Introducción a la Fonología

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ACTIVIDAD 3REFORZAMIENTO

ACTIVIDAD 2PRINCIPAL

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ACTIVIDAD 1PREVIA

1. Introduction to Phonology

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Reproduce el siguiente video y responde las siguientes preguntas conforme avanza.

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2. Introduction to Phonology

Phones

Phonemes

Allophones

IPA

Voiced and Voiceless

Consonants

Vowels

Stress

Intonation

Explora cada uno de los conceptos que tienen que ver con la fonología, descubre su significado y algunos ejemplos.

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3. Introduction to Phonology

Realiza las siguientes actividades para aprender los conceptos básicos de la fonología y en que nos ayuda.

In linguistics, a "phone" refers to a speech sound, which is the smallest unit of sound in a language. Phones are distinct from phonemes, which are the abstract units of sound that carry meaning in a particular language. Phones can vary within a language and may not necessarily change the meaning of a word. Here are some examples of phones in linguistics: - [p]: As in the initial sound of "pen."

It’s a set of phones that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

Allophones are phonetic variations - different pronunciations - of the same phoneme. Using a different allophone does not change meaning. Example. The /l/ sound is pronounced differently in 'love' and in 'wool'. These two words contain allophones of the phoneme /l/.

The International Phonetic Alphabet, also called IPA, was developed by some linguistics to accurately represent languages' pronunciations. Its main purpose is to provide a unique symbol for each distinct sound in a language. While the IPA contains 107 different vowels and consonants, no language uses all of them. In some languages such as English around 44 of these sounds are used while in a language such as Spanish only 24 sounds are used.

If vocal cords vibrate in the throat, uttering a sound, we have a voiced sound, and if vocal cords do not, the sound is unvoiced. All the vowels produced in English are voiced, while consonants are either voiced or voiceless.

English is a language in which different parts of a word or a sentence are pronounced with more emphasis. In other words, when a syllable or a part of a sentence is stressed, we pronounce it louder and with more force.

'Consonant sounds' are sounds that are produced by constraining the air in the mouth, either partially or completely, by closing the lips or touching the teeth with the tongue. English has 24 consonant sounds. These sounds are… /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/, /f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /ð/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /h/, /w/, /n/, /m/, /ɹ/, /j/, /ŋ/, and /l/.

A vowel is a sound that is created by your mouth fairly open and without friction. The word 'vowel' is used for both 'vowel sounds' and also their written symbols.

Intonation is the music of the language, and it goes hand in hand with stress. We could say that intonation is a combination of changing the pitch of our voice, stress, and rhythms. We should know that intonation is very important, because just using different intonations in the same word/sentence can have a different meaning.