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It's Decolonization and Struggles


The Fight for Freedom

Topic: Decolonization in Cambodia. Guatemalan Genocide. Brief Context:France colonized Cambodia in 1863 gains independence in 1953 after a 90 year long struggle to decolonize. However, not everything is well afterwards. Objective/Goals: - Show how conflict as a result of decolonization in Cambodia, post World War II, led to diminished economy, political tensions & instability, and ethnic divisions.


- After gaining independence, Cambodia's economy mainly centered around farming with only a few industries starting up. - Industries like textiles and paper mostly relied on imported materials and were often owned by foreigners or rich chinese. - Government destroyed a lot of things like buildings and crops.


Norodom Sihanouk

Ho Chi Minh

*All evidence summarized into bullet points.* sources will be cited at end.

- Prior to cambodia decolonization, Ho Chi Minh of vietnam began leading a guerrilla war against French forces. - French driven out of vietnam dividing the country into North and South Vietnam. - Norodom Sihanouk is newly elected king. - Inspired by Vietnam, Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia launches international decolonization campaigns.- Cambodian victory against French at Dien Bien Phu.- France grants independence to Cambodia at Geneva Conference.


- During Cambodi's fight for indpendence, the Khmer people were influenced by Therivada Buddhism. - Made people more conservative and kess focused on money- Had own traditional beliefs mixed with Buddhism and Hidnuism whcih created a unique culture. - Cambodia had an enormous shortage of teachers, facilities, and funding. illiteracy rates skyrocketed to almost 40 percent



“- In the early 1980s the Guatemalan army defeated a Marxist-led guerrilla movement by killing tens of thousands of Mayan Indians.- In November 1960, 120 junior army officers tried to overthrow President Manuel Ydígoras (1958–1963)” , “Several of the rebel officers went on to found the country's first Marxist guerrilla organizations.”- The Khmer Rouge regime (1975-1979) and subsequent conflicts caused many educated Cambodians to flee the country.”- The government also forcibly ‘disappeared’ over 40,000 Guatemalans, including 5,000 children. Students, intellectuals, priests, leftists, and anyone who opposed the government or military

Mass atrocity: Guatemalan Genocide

Chhair, Sokty, and Luyna Ung. Economic History of Industrialization in Cambodia. July 2016, www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/L2C_WP7_Chhair-and-Ung-v2-1.pdf.Holocaust Museum Houston. “Genocide in Guatemala.” Hmh.org, 2019, hmh.org/library/research/genocide-in-guatemala-guide/. Accessed 27 Mar. 2024.Hiebert, Maureen S. “Genocide, Revolution, and Starvation under the Khmer Rouge.” Genocide Studies International, vol. 11, no. 1, Dec. 2017, pp. 68–86, https://doi.org/10.3138/gsi.11.1.03. Accessed 3 Apr. 2024.Headley, Tyler. “The Lingering Effects of the Cambodian Genocide on Education.” The Diplomat, 7 Sept. 2018, thediplomat.com/2018/09/the-lingering-effects-of-the-cambodian-genocide-on-education/nelson, roger. “Cambodian Modernism- Routledge Encyclopedia of Modernism.” Www.rem.routledge.com, 5 Sept. 2016, www.rem.routledge.com/articles/cambodian-modernism. Accessed 2 Apr. 2024.World Without Genocide. “Guatemala.” Guatemala " World without Genocide - Making It Our Legacy, 2020, worldwithoutgenocide.org/genocides-and-conflicts/guatemala#:~:text=The%20government%20also%20forcibly%20’disappeared,never%20to%20be%20seen%20again. Netzley, Patricia D. "decolonization campaigns." The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Terrorism, edited by Moataz A. Fattah, Greenhaven Press, 2007, pp. 105-110. Gale In Context: World History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3205400113/WHIC?u=j043905009&sid=bookmark-WHIC&xid=cce2457b. Accessed 25 Mar. 2024. "Cambodia." Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War, edited by Stanley I. Kutler, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. Gale In Context: World History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/BT2336200063/WHIC?u=j043905009&sid=bookmark-WHIC&xid=d6693283. Accessed 25 Mar. 2024. Stoll, David. "Guatemala." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, edited by Dinah L. Shelton, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2005, pp. 419-422. Gale In Context: World History, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3434600152/WHIC?u=j043905009&sid=bookmark-WHIC&xid=fbb3e498. Accessed 25 Mar. 2024.

Works Cited

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