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Work done by:Rodrigo Barros Nº23 Rodrigo Gomes Nº24Rodrigo Gonçalves Nº25

Plastic Water Bottle

Plastic is a versatile material used to make a lot of different products used by people on a daily basis. It is a man-made polymer containing various complex organic compounds, which mean that like other polymers it can be molded, extruded and casted into different forms and shapes. It was truly discovered in 1907 by the chemist Leo Baekeland, who was the first one to create fully synthetic plastic. Since then, plastic has been used for thousands of different stuff, from packages to clothes and others.



Each water bottle has it's own type of plastic, so, there are water bottles that can be made from a type that isn't used on others. The most common types of plastic for water bottles are:-PET (polyethylene terephthalate) -PC (polycarbonate)-HDPE (high density polyethylene)


Types of plastic


Finishing After the bottle is blown, it is removed from the mold and undergoes a series of finishing processes, such as washing, drying, and labeling. The bottle is then ready for distribution and use.

Blow MoldingOnce the mold is created, the plastic is melted and blown into the mold using compressed air. This process is known as blow molding and is used to create the shape of the bottle.

Injection MoldingThe first step in the manufacturing process is to create a mold for the plastic water bottle. This is done using an injection molding machine, which melts plastic pellets and injects them into the mold to create the desired shape.

Manufacturing Process

Plastic has much important and necessary characteristics. Some of it's most notable physical and chemical characteristics are:- The high elasticity - It's lightweight - Chemical resistance - The thoughness of tensile strength - Being a poor conductors - Resistance to weather


Characteristics of the Plastic used


Plastic water bottles are a major contributor to pollution in our oceans and waterways. When they are not disposed of properly, they can end up in the ocean, where they can harm marine life and disrupt ecosystems. In addition to pollution, plastic water bottles also contribute to the growing problem of plastic waste. When they are not recycled, they can take hundreds of years to decompose, and can release harmful chemicals into the environment.

Environmental impact


Chemical LeachingPlastic water bottles can leach harmful chemicals into the water, especially when exposed to heat or sunlight.These chemicals, such as BPA and phthalates, have been linked to various health issues including hormone disruption and increased risk of certain cancers.Microplastic ContaminationPlastic water bottles contribute to the growing problem of microplastic contamination in the environment.Microplastics, tiny plastic particles, can be ingested through water consumption and have the potential to accumulate in the body, causing potential health risks.Environmental ImpactThe production and disposal of plastic water bottles have significant environmental impacts, contributing to pollution, resource depletion, and climate change.Choosing alternative options such as reusable bottles can help reduce these environmental and health concerns.

Chemical additives

Plastic water bottles are made from raw materials like petroleum or natural gas. These materials are extracted and later melted and molded into bottle shapes. The bottles get filled, transported to stores and then purchased by consumers, who use them once and then dispose it or reuse it. After usage, bottles are either recycled, thrown away in landfills, or end up as litter in the environment, taking hundreds of years to decompose, contributing to pollution.

Life Cycle of Plastic Water Bottles


There are a lot of different alternatives to plastic water bottles, such as: Reusable Water Bottles - Made from steel, glass, or BPA-free plastic, reusable water bottles are durable and can be used countless times, reducing the need for single-use plastic bottles. Biodegradable or Compostable Bottles: Companies can produce water bottles made from biodegradable materials such as plant-based plastics or compostable materials, which decompose more easily in the environment compared to traditional plastics. Refill Stations: Increasing the availability of water refill stations in public spaces encourages people to refill their reusable bottles instead of purchasing single-use plastic bottles.

Sustainable Alternatives


There are governmental rules and laws about usage, production and disposal of water bottles. This helps to manage pollution by plastic and reduce the litter of plastic bottles. Some of those rules and laws are: Recycling Targets: Governments set goals for recycling plastic. Bans or Limits - Some places ban or limit certain plastic bottles, that cause even worse pollution. Standards - Rules ensure that bottles are safe and recyclable. Producer Responsibility - Some companies are the ones managing the disposal of their bottles. Awareness Campaigns - Governments often teach about plastic's impact and promote reusable bottles and also other types of alternatives.

Regulations and Standards


Concluding, plastic water bottles harm the environment at every stage of their life cycle, and even though governments are trying to help, we still have much to do. It's a team effort to make things better for the planet, and so, we all have to help. Some other actions people can take to reduce the environmental impact of plastic are: -Use reusable bottles -Support refill stations -Recycle plastic bottles -Support bans or fees -Educate others -Support sustainable alternatives -Reduce overall plastic use