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World History II

James M. Cullen


Spanish and portugueses




King Leopold




Habsburg and Russian Pogroms


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Spanish Empire: 1492-1898, end of Spanish control in the Americas

Brief Introduction

Spanish Territories: North America, South America, Africa, and Asia

Portuguese Empire: 1415-1956

Portuguese Territories: Europe, Africa, South Amrica, North America, and Asia


The Spanish and Portuguese

The expeditions that would be brought about by the Spanish and Portuguese would bring disease, greed, religion, war death, and enslavement. Furthermore, the inquistition would follow both countries outside of Europe

Treaty of Tordesillas

The Treaty was intended to solves the dispute between Spainish and Portuguese expeditions. Plus the conflict that arose due to the exploration of Christopher Columbus on behest of the Portuguese crown. That led to a threatening letter being sent to them by the Spanish Crown

Iberian Union: 1580-1640

This got rid of the Spanish Habsburg Dynasty Line and created a global economy that was a result of conquest by the Spanish and Portuguese. However now they would be united under the idea of "God, Gold, and Glory"


The Explotation of America


Hernan CortesBorn: 1485Died: 1547

The conqueroring of America

Spanish conquerors known as Canquestadors went to the Americas to colonize land in the name of the Spainish crown in hopes of riches. This led to slaughter and conquest of Native American Empires like the Incas and Aztecs.

Francisco PizarroBorn: 1478Died: 1541


The Destruction of Nativs


Christopher Columbus Born 1451 - Died1506


Portugal just like spain wanted to have control and colonies that would create massive amounts of wealth. This led to the need for labor and the setting up of trade routes established with Africans. In the case of the Portugues they would set up a slave network with the Kongo (Slaves for Guns).

Global Slavery

The Transatlantic

What is the cost of a Human life?

Slave routes before the start of the Transatlantic slave trade had existed for quite a while in the India Ocean Slave Trade. However, 12.5 million Africans would be taken and sold to be slaves all across the Americas.

How were slaves aquired:

  • The establishment of forts to go out and capture Africans
  • The trading of Slaves with other Africans (War prisoners and from Raids)
  • The establishment of alliances between African Kingdoms (The Portuguese and The Kongo)

Scramble for Africa

Explotation for Natural Resources

Brief Summerization

The Scramble for Africa is best described as several European nations exploiting the natural resources of Africa. Which led desired these resources due to the Industrial Revolution, colonization, and missionaries. This was allowed due to the technological advancement of weapons for the europeans compared to African Tribes who did not have such technologies.



The English and Portuguese

In the 17th Century arose a struggle between the native Japanese and the kingdom of Protugal. The Portguguese beleived through the conversion of the native Japanese to Catholicism would allow for a take over of the Japanese. However, Tokugawa Iyeyasu and his samurai were undaunted by the threat of foriegn invasion by the Portuguese.Tokugawa was the reason for the uniting of Japan under the Shogun. The Shogun was a political figure like a king who ruled with punity over the Nation. However, Tokugawa had brought a peace to Japan that had not been seen in a long time.

Iyayasu meets an english protestant Pilot named William Adams who under Dutch employers wanted to open trade up between England and Japan. This worked out well for Adams due to Iyeyasu's distrust of Portuguese Catholics that preached about a god that was stronger than him. John Adams would build two ships for Iyeyasu in Japan that could handle the open ocean. (They would sail to Mexico and back)



The Daimyo/Status System

Tokugawa foundation in cultural influence would control the Daimyos by having them swear allegiance to each shogun and acknowledge the laws of Buke Shohatto (Warrior Laws)This control of the Daimyo wasn't just to the warrior class but to everyone in Japanese society. This made things extremely difficult for someone to move up in their caste

Christain Discrimination

Alot of Tokugawa's distrust in Christains led to discrimination. This was due to the idea that Christianity was a subversive religion that tried to destroy the Japanese traditional way of life.This would lead to the death of Jesuit priests and followers of christ. In some cases children as young as 5yrs old would be put to the sword. Furthermore, the pressure put upon the sothern Christain populations created tensions to rise between Japanese christians and traditional Japanese. This led to a revolt agaisnt the Shogun due to injustices brought upon by the taxing and conditions put upon the Christian peasant population. That would last for 4months and would end in the the eradictation of Christain disidents.


  • Travel (Especially Women)
    • Checkpoints
      • Full body searches
    • Daimyo had to travel to Edo for 6months
      • the cost of travel/processions were exspensive
  • Clothing
    • Certain color fabrics were for different castes

His control over The Congo

His Tyranny

King Leopold was able to commit such autrocities by making Europe believe that he wanted to help the Africans in the Congo. However, he was able to manipulate public opinion and act in shock when such autrocities came to light. He even went as far in planting stories in foreign newspapers about the misdeeds of other colonizing nations.

His tyranny over the Congo was autrocious. His reign as the king of Belgium led to the countless deaths, explotations, and crimes committed against the people of the congo were heinous and cruel.

KingLeopold II

KingLeopold II



Autrocities of King Leopold II

The terror that Leopold had over the congo was determintal to the people that called the Congo their home.

  • Officails cutting limbs off locals for not meeting rubber requirements
  • Kept the Slave trade alive and used slaves in the aquirement of rubber/resources
  • Villages massacred (Male children forced into milatary service)

Russia and Ukraine were inhabited by nomadic tribes and mysterious bronze age cultures (The Scythians)


Key Factors

2000 BC




650 AD



Vladimir the Great (Brought Orthodox Christianity to Russia and Ukraine)



After WW1 Russia become weakened. This led to the eventual Civil War and eventually the rise of Communist Russia

Inhabited by the slavs(Many Tribes, shared language and culture. However, were different in many ways.)

Russia helps to defeat Napolean. Which would solidify Russia as a World Power


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The Rise of Russia and to Communism

Nicholas I of Russia

His Military Victories across Europe and on the borders of the Persian and Ottoman Empires. Led him to be called the Policeman of Europe. Thus, establishing this presences that Russia is a World power built upon his ideals of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality.

The Russian Civil War:1917-1923

After WW1 Russia had become weakened due to the strains of the war. This led to the Abdication of the Romanovs from politcal power. Thus, leading to the formation of the Russian Republic who would face problems of Civil war as they could not stop the suffering of the Russian people. Furthermore, leading to revolution and the foundation of a Communist Russia.

Nicholas I Emperor of RussiaBorn: 1796Died: 1855


The Rise

Catholic Control and Influence

The Habsburgs would be elected as Holy Roman Emperors then were given blessings by the papacy. However, the "Empire" was made up of territories that had their own leaders that voted on the Emperor.This gave them alot of control over politics in Europe. However, this control would be challenged in the 30yrs war and Napolean's rise to power.

We would see in the case of the Habsburgs that they very much favored the Catholic church. Thus, this led to Ferdinand II to force the population of Bohemia to become catholic when made king of Bohemia.

How did they come into Power?

The Habsburgs came into power through marriage alliances. They had aquired alot of land by the 15th century through this method of marriage. The Spanish Branch helped the Habsburgs to gain control due to the Iberian Union. But the control over Spain would end with Charles II dying without a male heir in the 1700.


The Loss of Power

30yrs war/How HRE lost power

  • The Habsburgs are opposed by France in the 30 years war.
  • The War saw Habsburg Ferdinanad II become king of Bohemia. Where he forced every citizen to become Catholic.
  • A Civil War would break out in Bohemia where Ferdinand would be back by HRE states and Bohemia had to reach out to powerful protestant countries to help them. (Ferdinand established as Holy Roman Emperor).
  • Consequences: death of millions and lead to diseases (Bubonic Plague), starvation, and violence.
  • Peace of Wesphalia: Ended the conflict, brought about concept of Nation States, each state had control of their region, reduced the concept of religion being a means for war. (HRE Power is dramatically reduced.)

Alexander II would begin form liberal reforms for the Jewish people living in Russia. He would stop the practice of conscripting Jewish children who in the army would deal with alot of forced conversion to christianity. However, due to the fact that one of the people that helped assassinate him was Jewish the whole ordeal was seen as a Jewish Plot.

Russian Pogroms


The Start of Jewish Discrimination

  • May Laws
    • Jews had to relocate to Urban areas (lack of employement cause impoverishment)
      • 35% poverty stricken and in need of help
    • Specific Jewish restrictions with renting/buying property
    • Employment restrictions
      • Could not be Civil Servants

Jewish Restrictions

Alexander II Born: 1855Died: 1881

A painting depicting a Jewish woman who was being discriminated against by townspeople for falling in love with a Christian man. Her parents on the right are seen denouncing her


From 1881-1883

Close to almost 200 pogroms will have taken place. Which would leave thousands to lose their homes, become wounded, and lose all financial property. During this time Rape was commonplace against Jewish women. Not to mention the sentencing of perpertrators who led these pogroms got light sentencing.


A rumor that was based upon a Pogrom that called upon the killing of Jews. Who were depicted as being sanguinius in nature (Vampires) and to massacre them all. This led to the killing of 49 people and many injured. This would gain international attention. especially in America with african Americans would could relate due to Lynching in America

Russian Civil War:Pogroms

  • Military Forces on all sides of the war intiated Porgroms
  • In decades leading up to and the years during the war saw close to 1200-1326 Pogroms being intiated
  • Steven Zipperstein would quote that not just the killing of Jews but atleast the same amount of Jewish women were raped.
  • The complete eradication and destruction of Jewish majority towns
  • This would be known as the Forgotten Holocaust

Russian Pogroms