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Author/editor’s surname, Initial. (year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Name of Publisher. For example: Schyberg, R. (2020) Radio production. Boston: Boston Press. Wang, L. (ed.) (2022) Marketing. London: Business Press. If the book is not the first edition, add this information between the title and the place of publication: Schyberg, R. (2020) Radio production. 3rd edn. Boston: Boston Press.

Books and e-books

If you include more than one reference for the same point, list them all in brackets, earliest first, and separate by semicolons. If they have the same date then order alphabetically. For example: Various studies (Castaldi, 2017; Martinez et al., 2017; Petrov, 2018; Farooqi and Arain, 2020) have shown that cats prefer to avoid dogs in the multi-pet household.

Citing multiple sources

Author’s last name, Initial. or Name of organisation (year published/last updated) Title of site. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). For example: Health and Safety Executive (2019) Workers: health and safety. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/workers/ (Accessed: 23 October 2023).


This list appears at the end of your assignment (on a separate page) and should include only the sources you have mentioned in your assignment. Items on your list are put in alphabetical order of the first author’s/editor’s surname. You must include all the authors/editors. Do NOT use bullet points or numbers, just leave a space between each item. You should not separate different types of items (e.g. books, journal articles, websites). Different types of resources follow different patterns. For example: Parkes, S. (2014) ‘Fostering a sense of belonging: supporting the early formation of student identity as successful learners in higher education’, Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education, 6, pp. 1-22. QAA (2017) UK quality code for higher education. Available at: file://Chapter%20B4-%20Enabling%20Student.pdf (Accessed: 2 July 2023). Starfield, S. (2013) ‘Critical perspectives on ESP’, in Paltridge, B. and Starfield, S. (eds.) The handbook of English for specific purposes. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 461-480. The first item on the list is a journal article, the second one a website, and the last one a chapter in an edited book. To find the format of any other resource, always follow Cite Them Right.

Reference list

  1. Always check Cite Them Right!
  2. Contact the Learning Skills Team: learner@canterbury.ac.uk
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Academic integrity and plagiarism

If you summarise or paraphrase (put into your own words) what an author says, you do not need to use quotation marks but you MUST include the author’s last name and the year of publication, as you may not be borrowing exact words but you are still borrowing an idea. If the information refers to particular sections of the text, rather than referring to a complete work or ideas that run through an entire work, you must also provide a page number. For example:Mhango (2020, pp. 47-48) argues that despite technological advances, radio production is less sophisticated than in the past.Recent research has presented evidence to suggest that despite technological advances, radio production is less sophisticated than in the past (Mhango, 2020, pp. 47-48).It is important to note that paraphrasing involves RE-WRITING (both grammar and vocabulary), not simply replacing a few words by using synonyms. Poor paraphrasing can lead to academic misconduct. This resource explores how to avoid poor academic practice:


It is essential to provide references whenever you use images or information that have come from someone else. References go in two places:• At the point in your essay where you use the material. This is called an in-text citation. For example: According to Abadi (2020), there are a number of reasons why children learn more effectively through play.• In the reference list at the end of your essay (separate page), where full details are provided. For example:Abadi, O. (2020) Childhood. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Failure to do this accurately can lead to academic misconduct.

What is referencing?

Introduction to referencing online module

The Harvard referencing system

This is a short guide to the Harvard referencing system. Detailed information can be found in: Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 12th edn. London: Red Globe Press. The book is available in the library, from the bookshop or on Blackboard. You can access Cite Them Right online by using the Institutional log in tile (select Canterbury Christ Church University then use your CCCU log in details).Click to go to Cite Them Right online.

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Initial. Surname (ed.) Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers of whole chapter. For example: Karim, R., Tretten, T. and Kumar, U. (2018) ‘eMaintenance’, in M. Pecht and M. Kang (eds.) Prognostics and health management of electronics. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 559–587.

Chapters in books with editors

Author’s surname, Initial. (year of publication) ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number (part number/month/season), page numbers of whole article. For example: Koskinen, F. (2022) ‘Interpretations of reality’, Psychology Today, 21 (3), pp.19-26. Some journal articles have a doi identification number. If available, this number must be included. For example: Cavalcante, T. and Silva, S. (2016) ‘Teaching in higher education’, Journal of Higher Education, 56 (10), pp. 421–429. Available at: https://doi.org/10.53761/

Printed or electronic journals

If the text you are referencing is written by TWO authors, you include them both. For example: Ahuja and Patel (2019) have established that... If the resource has been written by THREE authors, you must mention them all. For example: Play should be incorporated in all subject teaching activities (Tanaka, Sato and Ito, 2018). For MORE THAN THREE authors, use the first surname followed by et al. in text. For example: Howard et al. (2019) account for the increase in cat ownership by referring to recent changes in family life. Recent changes in family life have led to an increase in cat ownership (Howard et al., 2019).NB You must include all the names on your reference list. For example: Howard, C., Smith, T., Jones, L. and Brown, N. (2019) Enemies and friends. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

More than three authors

Paraphrasing video

When quoting from a source, you use the author’s exact words. You should put these words inside quotation marks and include the following key information: • the author’s last name (no initials or title) • the year of publication • the number of the page the quote comes from If the author’s name is part of your sentence, it does not go inside the brackets. For example: Rai (2019, p. 23) claims that 'the majority of single pets live in very privileged circumstances’. If the author’s name is NOT part of your sentence, it goes inside the brackets. For example: It has been suggested that 'the majority of single pets live in very privileged circumstances’ (Rai, 2019, p. 23). Quotations of more than three lines should be written as separate paragraphs and indented. You do not need quotation marks but you should still give the author’s last name, the year and the page number in brackets at the end. It is NOT advisable to use long quotations as you are simply copying and pasting long chunks of text. It is advisable to keep quotes short (just a few words), and to use only very few in your assignment. You are encouraged to paraphrase as much as possible to show your understanding and ability to synthesise ideas. You can learn about the benefits of paraphrasing in this video:

Direct quotations