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Transcript

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iNdice

Descrição do processo biotecnológico

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Aplicação no dia a dia

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Potencialidade e Limitação

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Questões Bioéticas

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Questionário

06

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O que é o DNA?

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DNA , substância química orgânica de estrutura molecular complexa encontrada em todas as células procarióticas e eucarióticas e em muitos vírus . Cada fita de uma molécula de DNA é composta por uma longa cadeia de nucleotídeos. Os nucleotídeos do DNA consistem numa molécula de açúcar desoxirribose à qual está ligado um grupo fosfato e um dos quatro grupos nitrogenados:

  • adenina e timina
  • citosina e guanina.
Uma fita é ligada a outra por ligações de hidrogênio entre as bases; a sequência dessa ligação é específica – ou seja, a adenina liga-se apenas à timina e a citosina apenas à guanina.

O que é a CRIsPR-CAS9?

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Um dos avanços mais recentes na área da biotecnologia foi o desenvolvimento do sistema CRISPR-Cas9.

É constituído por:

  • ma enzima (endonuclease Cas9) que corta a dupla cadia de DNA num local específico
  • RNA guia (CRISPR) complementar da sequência de DNA que se pretende cortar

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Este sistema foi descoberto em bactérias que usam o sistema CRISPR-cCas9 para se protegerem de virus, quebrando o DNA viral e inativando-o. E permite a edição de DNA, em particular de sequências génicas, de forma a silenciar a expressão ou alterar a proteína codificada pelo gene específico. Para tal, os cientistas produzem uma molécula de RNA guia, que se liga á Cas9 e que procura no genoma a sequência que lhe é complementar e que se pretende alterar

Em outubro de 2020, o mundo conheceu os vencedores do prêmio Nobel de química de 2020: duas cientistas, Dra. Jennifer Doudna e Dra. Emmanuelle pelo desenvolvimento de uma técnica de edição de genes chamada CRISPR-Cas9

Aplicações no dia a dia

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Como funciona?

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Imaginem que se quer mudar uma secção de um DNA porque ele apresenta uma mutação que causa uma doença. Os cientista vão criar uma cópia desta secção( RNA mensageiro guia ) e vão liga-la à proteína Cas9. A Cas9 junto com com a secção de RNA guia, é inserida na célula e vai à procura do “match” no DNA (a secção que é igual), quando ela encontra faz o papel de uma tesoura e corta essa secção.Depois disso vai ser possível inserir uma nova sequência no lugar, ou até mesmo deixar a própria célula arranjar aquela secção de DNA sozinha.

Sistema CRISP-CAS 9 + dna COMPLEMENTAR

Sofia e Rodrigo Reis nº2 e nº 12.ºA

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