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Examination of the role cells and tissues play within the animals body.

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This interactive slideshow will include these topics:

  • Description of the difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
  • An examination of the role of cell organelles
  • An explanation of the process and function of cell division
  • Analysis of the structure and function of animal tissues

PRESENTATION By Aiden Roberts

The Role of Cells and Tissues Within the Body

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PRESENTATION

MICROPARTICLES

(Mokobi, Microbe Notes, 2023)
(Testbook, 2023)
(Buckley, 2020)

What's the difference?

Prokaryotic Cells vs. Eukaryotic cells

Watch this video linked above, then tick which properties prokrayotic and eukarutoic cells have in common

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The differences are..

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Read this article from Anatomy & Physiology then answer these questions.

Examination of the roles of cell organelles

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Meiosis
Mitosis
  • Process where 1 cell divides 2 times to produce 4 cells with half of the original genetic information.
  • (binary fission– DNA replicates whereas chromosomes replicate with eukaryotic cells)
  • Mitosis splits a cell into 2 genetically identical daughter cells to the parent cell. This is vital to GROWTH and REPAIR within the body as without this process, cells would simply die and so the organisms would die. Mitosis is the only way an infant/baby can grow into an adult. All animal and plant life would cease to exist without it.

What are the key differences between the two processes of cell division?

The Process and functions of cell division

Learn more by clicking this link

Two new nuclei form, one from each set of chromosomes. New nuclear membranes and nucleoli appear. The cell is almost finished dividing as the mitotic spindle is broken down into its building blocks. The chromosomes expand and and return to their original stringy form.
The sister chromatids seperate from each other as the protein glue breaks down. Chromosomes from each pair are pulled to oppoiste ends of the cells. The microtubules not attached to any chromosomes start to seperate the poles and ultimately make the cell longer, by elongating themselves and pushing apart.
The mitotic spindle has caught all of the chromosomes and lines them up in what's termed the 'metaphase plate'. The kinetochores of each chromosome attaches to a microtubule from opposite side spindle poles.
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The transition period between prohase and metaphase. The chromosomes compact so much so that the nuclear envelope begins to break down. The mitotic spendle grows larger and begins to catch chromosomes.

The first stage of mitosis, the chromosomes within the cell start to condense. The mitotic spindle starts to form and the nucleolus starts to disappear.

  • Prophase (early prophase)
  • Prometaphase (late prophase)
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

Mitosis stages

The final stage where the chromosomes arrive at oppoiste poles of the cell. Cytokinesis typically occurs, forming 2 haploid daughter cells.
  • Prophase
  • Metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • Telophase

Meiosis stages

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Analysis of the Structure and Functions of Animal Tissues

Structure and Function

Epithelial Tissue

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The function of epithelial tissue differs depending on where it is located in the body.Protection - for example, the epidermis/outer layer of skin protects the deep tissue within the body such as blood vessels, muscle and internal organs. Another example is the cilia on the epithelial cells in the lining of the small intestine help protect against intestinal bacteria. Secretion - glandular epithelium secretes enzymes, hormones, and fluids of different types. Absorption - the epithelial lining of internal organs e.g. liver and lungs, allow the abortion of certain substances. For example, the internal epithelial lining of the intestines absorbs nutrients from the food eaten.Excretion - e.g. the epithelial tissue is the kidneys excrete waste. E.g. the epithelial tissue in sweat glands are responsible for excreting sweat.Filtration - the epithelium of the respiratory tract filters out particles and dirt, cleaning the air inhaled. Another example is the epithelial tissue in kidneys filtering blood. Diffusion - simple squamous epithelial cells form a membrane that allows selective diffusion of materials to pass through. Sensory reception - sensory nerve endings embedded within epithelial tissue allows the body to receive outside sensory stimuli. E.g. taste buds are embedded within the stratified squamous epithelium of a person's tongue. E.g. the stereocilia on the surface of the epithelial tissue in the inner ear help with hearing and balance.

Epithelial tissue - functions

Connective Tissue

Answer these questions to test your knowledge!
Extra Videos for Extra Information

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This video summarises and explains key basic aspects of the different structures and roles of the different types of connective tissues.

Conective Tissue - Video Summary

Cardiac Muscle
Smooth Muscle
Skeletal Muscle

There are 3 categories of muscle tissues, all structured differently and perform different functions vital to the survival of an animal's body!

Muscle tissue

Main Properties of the Different Types of Muscle Tissue

Muscle tissue

Cardiac muscle

Smooth muscle

Skeletal muscle

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Do you know what this 2% stands for?
Structure:Composed of 2 types of cells - neurons and glial cells. The neurons are electrically active and responsible for the communication within the nervous system. Neurons release chemical signals to target certain cells. Glial cells support the neurons within the nervous system. Some of these cells are phagocytic and help to protect against invasion by bacteria and others help to bind blood vessels to neurons to ensure nutrients are provided. Functions:Responsble for controlling and coordinating body activites The brain, spinal cord and nerves are made up of nervous tissue. Neurons are what makes the brain active and produce thoughts, as well as interpret information from outside stimuli. The cells have 3 main components - dendrites, cell body and axon.

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Structure and Function of Nervous Tissue

Nervous tissue

Just hover the mouse over the icon to see an overview of what the link is.

Helpful links to learn more

https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/cells_tissues_membranes/tissues/nervous.html https://opentextbc.ca/biology/chapter/14-2-animal-primary-tissues/#:~:text=Multicellular%2C%20complex%20animals%20have%20four,specialized%20functions%20within%20the%20body. https://open.oregonstate.education/aandp/chapter/4-4-muscle-tissue/ https://pressbooks-dev.oer.hawaii.edu/biology/chapter/animal-primary-tissues/#fig-ch33_02_12 References https://www.khanacademy.org/test-prep/mcat/cells/eukaryotic-cells/a/organelles-article https://biologydictionary.net/prokaryotic-cell/ – G. Buckley, 2020.https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/structure-of-a-cell/prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells/a/prokaryotic-cells#:~:text=Typical%20prokaryotic%20cells%20range%20from,from%2010%20to%20100%20%CE%BCm. – Khan Academy https://testbook.com/biology/diagram-of-animal-cell – animal cell diagramhttps://byjus.com/biology/cell-organelles/#plasma_membranehttps://byjus.com/biology/difference-between-nucleus-and-nucleoid/#:~:text=A%20nucleus%20is%20a%20spherically,not%20found%20in%20a%20nucleoid.https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/22062-epithelium

References

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2024

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2022

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2020

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timeline

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2018

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team

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