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State Veterinary Medicine and Disease Surveillance 1 + 2



Understand the role of government in control and approaches to animal disease

  • Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
  • DEFRA is ministerial department supported by agencies and public bodies

Responsibilities of DEFRA

Executive agencies of DEFRA


  • Animal and Plant Health Agency
  • Executive agency sponsored by DEFRA


Responsibilities of APHA

  • Vet inspectors - Operate from regional offices across UK
  • Animal health officer - non-veterinary role
  • Official vet - private vets who perform work on behalf of govt


Responsibilities of VIs

Responsibilities of AHO

Responsibilities of OVs

  • Executive agency sponsored by DEFRA


Responsibilities of VMD

  • Food standards agency
  • Non-ministrial - run by a board, not ministers


Responsibilities of FSA

FSA Operations

  • OVs - vet surgeons with VPH training
    • In charge of team
    • Role - antemortem inspection, slaughter, PM
  • Meat inspectors - non-vets
    • Role - hygiene, welfare, AM assistance

Inspection Teams

  • Environmental Health - responsibility of district council
    • Food hygiene
    • Role - waste control, pest control, inspections
  • Community Protection - responsibility of county council
    • Animal health and welfare, trade
    • Role -market inspections, animal transport, identification

Local Authorities

  • Improve and protect environment
  • Grow green economy
  • Sustain thriving rural communities
  • Support food, farming and fishing industries

  • APHA
  • VMD

  • Safeguard animal and plant health
  • Identify and control endemic and exotic diseases in animals and plants
  • Facilitate international trade of animals, ABP and PoAB, and plants
  • Scientific research

  • Diagnose and control notifiable diseases
  • PE of animals headed for slaughter
  • Monitor and inspect animals and ABP imports and exports

  • Assist VIs
  • Farm visits
  • Data collection and processing

  • Safeguard animal welfare
  • Disease surveillance
  • Facilitate international trade of animals and ABP

  • Monitor AEs from vet medicines
  • Residue testing
  • Authorise companies to sell vet med

  • Food is safe
  • Food is what it says it is
  • Food health and sustainability level

  • Provide verification and auditing of abattoirs and cuttings plants

Understand the context of disease monitoring and surveillance

Understand the role of international organisations in monitoring and surveillance

Understand monitoring and surveillance practices and structures at the national and European level

  • Monitor trends and incidences of disease agents in animal and human populations

  • United Nations WHO
  • United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation
  • World Organisation for Animal Health
  • UK Chief Veterinary Officer
  • European Food Safety Authority

Diseases Monitored by GLEWS

Diseases that fall into disease-free states

  • National level - notifiable diseases
    • Duty to notify appropriate authority
    • Suspect or diagnosed diseases
    • Humans
    • Animals
  • Surveillance dashboards for livestock disease

  • European level - Centre for Disease Prevention and Control
    • Monitor foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic diseases

  • Warn of potential outbreaks and emerging problems
  • Implement global control measures

  • Rapidly detect emerging pathogens and zoonoses
  • Coordinate rapid control measures with international organisations
  • MZCP - Mediterranean zoonoses control programme
  • GLEWS - Global early warning system for animal disease

  • Food security for all - access to high-quality food

  • Improve animal health and welfare
  • Control animal health risks
  • Foster One Health approach

  • DEFRA employee
  • Head of profession for all VS in government employment
  • Represent UK internationally
  • Shape animal health and welfare policies

  • Risk assessment and communication
  • Participation from national food safety authorities of EU member states and UK

  • Covid-19
  • Cholera
  • Food poisoning
  • Rabies
  • Typhus

  • Contact APHA
  • Restrictions imposed
  • Vet investigations and sampling
  • Culling and disposal


African Horse Sickness

Classical Swine Fever

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia


Peste de petits ruminants

Emerging Infectious Diseases

55% bacterial

25% viral, prion

20% fungal, protozoa, helminth

72% wildlife origin

60% zoonotic

Persistence of infectious diseases that can't be controlled

Rapid increase of known diseases within last 20 years

Outbreaks of previously unknown diseases

  • SARS
  • Lyme disease
  • West Nile Virus