Want to make creations as awesome as this one?


Community Policing (Consolidated PEQF Content)

February 2024


This unit must be completed to comply with the Policing Education Qualifications Framework (PEQF) on the National Detective Programme. This unit should take around 60 minutes to complete and does not need to be completed all at once. You can return to this unit as often as you like.

Effective Community Policing


National Detective Programme

Aims of community policing

Partnership working

To develop effective partnerships within the community.

Stronger Communities

Develop a resilient and cohesive community.

Reduced crimes

Identify issues affecting the community, developing a problem solving approach to addressing them.

Public Perceptions

To restore public trust in the police and foster a positive and collaborative relationship.



When referring to 'community' we tend to use the term in the context of neighbourhood policing and in relation to setting local priorities. The need for community engagement and advice on how to effectively engage with communities is outlined by Section 34 of the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act (2011), which provides a legal requirement for chief officers to make arrangements to consult with the public in each neighbourhood, provide local information about crime and policing and hold regular public meetings. Below are a number of ways this may present:

Development of volunteering

Ride along, Special, cadets


School Visits School partnerships are an invaluable tool in creating intelligence sharing opportunities. Safeguarding officers can identify at risk learners and potential safeguarding concerns that could further impact young people and the wider community. The overarching message for the pupils is that of safety, resilience and opportunity. Sessions can include information about what the police do to keep people safe, available support and ways the community can be involved.


  • Foot patrols
  • "Drop in sessions" e.g. coffee mornings
  • Night time economy safety initiatives
  • Social media
  • Hot spot policing

Community mapping This requires developing local knowledge of an area. This can be particularly valuable and challenging, particularly in neighbourhoods with transient populations or ‘hidden’ groups and communities. Identify:

  • Key stakeholders
  • Focal points (businesses, places of worship)
  • Specific strategies
  • SPOCs

Community liaison officer Community liaison officers provide a consistent point of contact between communities and the police. This enables a two-way communication between the police and the public, enabling the police to develop a better understanding of communities and their needs, risks and threats. This is particularly important when fostering communication in under-represented group such as LGBTQIA+.

Volunteering opportunities In some cases, people will want to play a more active role in the policing of their local areas. This might include:

  • Participating in problem-solving initiatives (for example, clear-up days)
  • Neighbourhood watch or citizen patrol scheme
  • Volunteering for the police or partner organisations
  • Ride Along schemes

It is important to identify who the key stakeholders within a community are. Particularly within sections of the community which feel they may not have a voice or a positive relationship with the police. This can include developing relationships within places of worship, local authority and networks and alliances representing under-represented minorities.

Development of the role of a Community Officer


+ Info





+ Info

+ Info

+ Info


"Out of touch with the people"

Cited by Lord Scarman after the Brixton riots, the reputation of the Police in the 1980s was severely damaged.With allegations of racism, violence, falsifying evidence and strained community tensions, the public had lost faith in the Police. The need to rebuild a connection between the Police and the community was highlighted.

Current government: Conservative

Click on each to find out more

"Tough on crime"

There was marked shift towards partnership, prevention and public engagement, aiming to rebuild the trust that had eroded in the 80s, by emphasising proactive crime prevention and closer community collaboration. The 90s saw decentralisation, allowing local police forces to tailor their strategies to local needs and influenced by policy changes such as the Crime and Disorder Act.Despite this, community policing faced challenges, notably, effectiveness concerns and corruption.

Current government: Conservative followed by Labour

Click on each to find out more

"Tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime" Tony Blair is appointed Prime Minister and introduces the "New Labour". Blair advocated for the development of community policing and understanding and addressing local issues.

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary in 1997 stated "the police are too reactive".

Current government: Labour

"Shoulder to shoulder"

The 2000s were a period of significant change and challenge for policing in Britain, characterised by evolving threats, increased demands for accountability and efforts to modernise the service. With the advancement of new technologies creating both broader scoping crimes, as well as opportunities to enhance operational effectiveness and data sharing. The early 2000s also saw the introduction and expansion of Community Support Officers.

Click on each to find out more

Current government: Conservative

"Remain or leave"

The 2010s were marked by political polarisation, technological advancements and social movements. key moments include Brexit, significant terror attacks globally, impacting politics and policing by heightening security concerns and reshaping international relations. Within policing the decade saw increased focus on counter-terrorism and cybercrime. Social movements like Black Lives Matter highlighted issues of racial bias and police accountability, leading to calls for reform.

Click on each to find out more


Consider the 2020s. Create a timeline of key events that have shaped policing and legislation.


Click the pencil icon in the top right corner to draw

You can draw on this page to add your key events.


key ideas



The goal of neighbourhood policing is to improve the quality of life and safety in the communities they serve. The essence of policing is in building trust with the community, collaborating closely with individuals, and applying a variety of problem-solving techniques to tackle challenges that affect communities.

Community based policing


Key Aspects

Targeted foot patrol

Community engagement

Problem solving

Image of community policing

As we've seen the visibility of a policing presence, isn't always well received. The idea of community policing is to maintain trust with the public and develop a view that officers placed within the community are source of positive and collaborative action.

Issues in community policing






Understanding neighbourhoods

Using data

Types of community

Demand and priorities

Risk, vulnerability and harm

While it is predominantly response and neighbourhood officers that will be visible in the community, it highlights the necessity for a detective to work collaboratively with different functions within policing to create intelligence sharing opportunities and garner a broader picture of issues within the community.

To create a detailed view of the community, data from arrests, crime and disorder surveys, PCC priorities and intelligence gathered from other faculties can be used to inform issues such as hot spots and levels of anti-social behaviour, however, it does not create a full picture as to the impact the community may be facing. Data should be used in collaboration with community engagement and academia to inform a more holistic approach.

Some community groups, including ethnic minorities and LGBTQIA+ populations, may present challenges in terms of accessibility and harbour historical mistrust. This underscores the necessity for designated points of contact or community liaison officers. It is imperative to demonstrate compassion and an eagerness to understand the historical and personal experiences that have shaped these communities.


Police Officers


Police Staff





+ info

+ info

+ info

Click here for further information on partnership working

  • Statutory Partnerships
  • Voluntary Partnerships
The roles within these partnerships include: local authorities, serious crime agencies, community stakeholders, social services, drug and substance misuse support hubs and health care providers.

Voluntary partnerships

Statutory partnerships

Partnership process

Partnerships can facilitate problem solving, intelligence sharing and reduce strain on resources.




Statutory partnerships are at the core of joint working. These are partnerships the Police are required to work with.

Voluntary partnerships

Founded in response to a local need and are motivated by the idea that the people they work with, their communities, and society at large can benefit from what they do. Some focus on serving the needs of specific demographics, such as women (e.g. Harbour, North East) or to concentrate on a specific problem, such as substance abuse (e.g. Turning Point, Avon and Somerset). These organisations are essential partners in both the design and delivery of services due to their knowledge, experience, and expertise.To facilitate this, it's necessary to identify networks, groups or individual people with particular interests or needs that would otherwise be invisible to the police, and communicate arrangements for engagement. The value lies in potential prevention, by identifying those at risk of harm in the future and introducing early intervention, it is possible to prevent problems escalating and reduce demand long term.In effectively sharing data between partners, specific problem solving interventions can be developed. This could also include involving partners in delivering training, where appropriate, as it may help people to understand local partnership arrangements and develop networks and relationship. Taking responsibility for issues that have been escalated by practitioners (for example, barriers to working with partners and problems that need additional police resources to solve).



Statutory partnerships

Key statutory organisations that work alongside the police include the CPS, local authorities, fire authority, health and probation services. They are at the core of joint working and offer specialist support to forces to maintain policy, safeguard, offer interventions and high level problem solving solutions such as Multi Agency Public Protection Arrangements (MAPPA).Statutory partnerships facilitate information and intelligence sharing, helping to quantify specific crimes geographically, or within a specific section of a local population.Produce a consolidated approach to accessing additional resourcesPrompt agencies with community safety responsibilities to develop and deliver a coordinated safety package for actual and potential victims of hate crime


Partnership process

For both statutory and voluntary partnerships, Chief officers, alongside their police and crime commissioners (PCCs), can use their influence to build effective partnership working, particularly with individuals and groups who have influence within communities.At force level, this includes regular dialogue between chief constables and chief crown prosecutors. Force hate crime leads regularly engaging with CPS Area Hate Crime Coordinators; and force leads attending CPS Area Local Scrutiny and Involvement Panels. Nationally, the CPS attends the Hate Crime Group of force regional chairs led by the National Police Chiefs' Council (NPCC) hate crime lead.Evidence highlights that partnership working is important to problem-solving. Aligning priorities with partners can improve cooperation and reduce potential duplication of activity. Working with partners may also increase capacity for problem-solving, may provide access to alternative solutions and may enable non-crime issues to be passed on to the most suitable agency. Public involvement in identifying and defining problems is also key to successful neighbourhood policing programmes.


Police and black community relationships

Policing has a difficult history in its relationships with Black communities, with historic reports of issues, inequality and institutional racism. Confidence levels in policing are lowest among Black communities, particularly surrounding use of policing powers.









Mitigating community trauma

Community trauma refers to a shared experience that affects a whole group or subsection of society, rather than an individual. In order to understand and mitgate the trauma faced by groups, officers should engage with individuals, community stakeholders and communities (including faith communities). This is to not only improve the relationship between the police and the community, but effectively tailor support.Officers should identify own barriers to their understanding of a community's history and encourage an open and candid dialogue to tackle issues such as racism, misogyny and distrust.

How can this be done?






Better enabling Black people to have their voices heard, by asking for input from local communities and Black police officers and staff, ensuring communities are routinely involved in the governance of policing.

There is an explicit expectation for all serving officers and staff members to speak up and report inappropriate behaviours by colleagues. Mandatory national training, rolled out under this plan, will help drive home the fundamental importance of reporting. The training, which will be co-designed by the NBPA, will deliver the knowledge, cultural competence and confidence that officers and staff need to challenge, interrupt and report racism wherever they see it.

Eliminating any racial bias, stereotyping, profiling or discrimination in our actions. Including actively challenging inappropriate, harmful and discriminatory behaviour and language when presented. If you are unable to challenge a colleague directly, report concerns through the line management process.

As part of the '0 tolerance of racism in policing' and Police Race Action Plan, Policing will increase the involvement of Black communities in its work and improve support to Black victims of crime. This includes accepting the impact of historic policing practice, which has led to community trauma and distrust of the police.

​ C ​




Communication skills

Developing cohesion

Problem solving


Case study: Leicestershire Police and Communities Together (LPACT)

Case study

Community events held to proactively engage with local black communities.






Anti-social behaviour and the community

Crime and ASB

Problem solving


Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour



Trends & impact

Nature of offences


Repeat victimisation /risk factors

Anti-social behaviour can present itself in a number of formats, perpertrated against a broad scope of victimisation.

Nature of offences


Personal antisocial behaviour is when a person targets a specific individual or group

Nuisance antisocial behaviour is when a person causes trouble, annoyance or suffering to a community.

Environmental antisocial behaviour is when a person's actions affect the wider environment, such as public spaces or buildings.






Locality or the locations in which Anti-social behaviour can occur may be dependent on a number of factors which can increase situational vulnerability. This is where the impact of ASB is increased because of where it happens, such as socially or economically stressed neighbourhoods, small outets and businesses, and areas with low level of social capital or high crime rates. These areas of high anti-social behaviour are referred to as hot spots.This particular issue can be addressed using hot spot policing. This strategy can be seen in practice in a number of forces, with varying degrees of success.






While anyone may be a victim of anti-social behaviour, certain sections of society may be more prominently affected, targeted or imacted.



Trends & Impact

The trends of anti-social behaviour have remained relatively consistent year on year.

Despite often being described as ‘low-level crime’, existing evidence suggests ASB can result in a range of negative emotional, behavioural, social, health and financial impacts. These include raising concerns of an area, impact on community wellbeing, negative mental health effects and added strain on public services.

Problem Solving

Most impactful

Community impact


Trust in police

Sexual, nuisance neighbours, out of control dogs and loud music are found to have the most significant impact on an individual's quality of life.

Within the community, ASB may weaken the sense of community by making people anxious to interact and socialise freely. However, in some cases, ASB may also bring communities together by giving them something to focus their efforts.

Those aged 18 to 34, and people residing in the most deprived areas are significantly more likely to have personally experienced or witnessed ASB.

Prevalence of ASB can also cause a loss of faith in the police due to perceived ineffectiveness and concerns remaining unaddressed. Individuals may question prioritisation and response, reducing likelihood of cooperation.

Moving forward

Walk and talks with young Somalian community members

Police worked with a local charity and volunteer Somalian community leaders to visit Somalian children and young people in public places. They discussed issues important to the young people, aiming to improve police engagement.





Problem Solving



Maximise cohesion

Minimise inaccesibility

"The police are the public, and the public, the police" - Sir Robert Peel

Community engagement is a central component of democratic policing and informs the Peelian principle that the power of the police to fulfil their functions and duties is dependent on public approval of their existence, actions and behaviour, and on their ability to secure and maintain public legitimacy and respect.

Importance of reflecting on own knowledge, attitudes and behaviour.


Use the map to select one issue affecting the community in Ashview.

Identify the short term and long term impact to the community the crime may cause.

Using what you have learned in this session, identify how you could resolve this issue.

Explain how you would rebuild the community cohesion with your solution.




Submit here

Nowicki's Groceries

Neighbour Dispute

Town Centre

Click on each marker to read more about the crimes in Ashview. Select the crime that is most relevant to your everyday role and the situations you are more likely to interact with in your force.

Submit your work



End of lesson


Thank you for completing this lesson!

End of Unit

Please click on this link to confirm your completion of the Policing Communities module and provide feedback on your online learning experience.


The murder of Stephen Lawrence and subsequent handling of the case, severely impacted public trust in the police, particularly among minority communities. The investigation was marred by institutional racism, incompetence and a failure to prosecute the perpetrators. The public outcry led to the Macpherson Report (1999) which concluded that the Met Police was institutionally racist and recommended significant reforms.

Murder of Stephen Lawrence


Ashview Park

There has been an escalation in anti-social behaviour taking place in Ashview Park. This has coincided with the closure of the support hub "Mindset", where a lot of service users would attend to receive support. Residents regularly complain to police about being harassed as they walk through the park, with many women stating when they walk through the park to reach the high street, young men will crowd her, grabbing themselves and making sexual remarks. There is often litter and drug paraphernalia left around the park, making the area look run down.

Broadwater Farm riots

The events of the day were fuelled by two deaths. The first, Cynthia Jarrett, a woman who died the previous day due to heart failure during a police search at her home. It was one of the main triggers of the riot, where tensions between local black youth and the largely white Metropolitan Police were already high, due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of 1985 Brixton riot which had occurred the previous week, following the shooting of a black woman, Cherry Groce, during another police search.The riots led to the death of PC Keith Blakelock, subsequently, six people (three juveniles and three adults) were charged with the murder of PC Blakelock. The juveniles had their cases dismissed after it was ruled that their interrogation was inadmissible. They were held in conditions included being questioned naked except for a blanket, and being questioned without a guardian

Walk and talks involve volunteer Somalian community leaders and members, in connection with the Women's Inclusivity Team, going out into the local community with the police to engage with Somalian youths. Where possible, Somalian officers are involved to demonstrate representation and help the community feel relaxed. The chosen locations for the walk and talks are areas where Somalian youths live. These locations were identified prior to the initiative being implemented. Walk and talks are organised collaboratively by a mutually suitable date, time, and place to meet. One walk and talk has been carried out so far. This was during the evening/night, focusing on the night-time economy where clubs are situated. The community participants and officers involved meet at a police station. The community participants are given a lift to the walk and talk area and the police make suggestions about which streets to go down. However, the exact location is largely dependent on where people feel able to facilitate conversations. The community participants accompanying the police approach members of the public and initiate conversations. The purpose of the conversations is to discuss members of the public’s backgrounds including their heritage, religion, culture and where they live. They also discuss their experiences and views of the police to highlight community concerns.

Easington Way

In the South West of Ashview, there is an ongoing neighbour dispute that has resulted in repeated call outs. Residents on the generally very close-knit Easington Way estate have been historically suspicious of those not from the area. This has been heightened recently due to the number of young men from the estate being recruited into county line gangs by 'outsiders'. The residents have become interested in a newly relocated family, the Jones’ who are from London. Aware of the area’s reputation, Phil Jones installed a Ring doorbell camera. This only heightened the distrust of the residents towards the family. The Jones family have had a number of run-ins with their neighbours, Chanelle Rogers and her daughter, Levi, aged 14 who rent the next door property. Both Chanelle and Levi are well-known to the police for largely ASB-related offences. Recently, both have posted on various social media platforms messages or statuses such as "No one should have to live near a nonce" and "This estate was better before the paedos and the scum." This has fuelled rumours on the estate. Mr Jones will call the police around twice a day with varying reports of being watched, abuse being shouted at him, dog waste being posted through his door and his car being scratched. Recently, the abuse has become much worse, resulting in Phil calling 999 threatening to take his own life. Levi is a student at Ashview Comprehensive, she and her friends consistently shout abuse and throw things at Mr. Jones’ house. Levi already has an Acceptable Behaviour Contract (ABC) against her.

Tottenham and wider London riots

On 4th August 2011, police officers shot and killed Mark Duggan, in Tottenham, north London. His death sparked a wave of civil unrest that started the capital and spread to other cities.What began as a peaceful protest requesting information from the police about the death, soon descended into violent riots and looting.

To proactively engage with young Somalian community members through visiting local areas and speaking to community members who:

  • Are often overlooked within larger projects because they are from smaller black communities have not previously engaged with the police to tackle local issues
  • And/or have had limited engagement with the police due to negative experiences of interactions with the police

Intended outcomes include:

  • An increased number of walk and talks carried out over time, demonstrating sustained proactive engagement.
  • More frequent contact, engagement, and collaborative working between the police and young Somalian community members, particularly with community members who have not previously engaged with the police to tackle local issues and/or have had limited contact with the police due to previous negative police interactions.
  • A platform and opportunities provided for young Somalian communities to voice their concerns, and subsequent appropriate action being taken. Community members engaging in further engagement activities with the police.
  • Increased use of diversion tactics where there are known issues with antisocial behaviour (ASB) and involvement with drugs, and fewer arrests relating to these.
  • Increased awareness of young Somalian community members about the police, the issues faced, and employment opportunities.
  • An increased interest in working for the police and job applications received from Somalian community members.
  • Increased trust and confidence among young Somalian communities, and overall improved relationships between the police and community members.

Last year in neighbouring Sandford, a grooming gang of four Albanian nationals was disrupted and brought to justice. Since this incident, community tensions in Ashview have been strained, with a high degree of anti-social behaviour being targeted at international food stores, much of this fuelled by social media posts, wrongfully naming the shop owners as also being involved. Last week, a post which garnered 300 likes on Facebook from residents in Ashview and Sandford has escalated racial abuse against the shop owners in the town centre.

False allegations

Town Centre

Mangrove Nine

Oval Four

Details the aftermath of a Notting Hill protest against Police Harassment which culminated in the arrest of nine British black activists, tried for inciting a riot at a 1970 protest against the police targeting of The Mangrove, a Caribbean restaurant in Notting Hill, West London.The case made legal history when it delivered the first judicial acknowledgement of ‘evidence of racial hatred’ in the Metropolitan police force.

Three men were arrested in March 1972 by a group of undercover police officers at Oval Underground station and accused of “nicking handbags” on the tube. They were beaten in the police cells and then charged with attempting to steal, theft, and assault of the police.After a five-week Old Bailey trial, at which none of the supposed theft “victims” appeared and the police relied on highly disputed “confessions”, all four were convicted and jailed for two years. The arrests occurred when “mugging” was a high-profile issue and routinely blamed on young black men. The defendants became known as the Oval Four.

Grenfell Tower


The Grenfell tower fire in June 2017, resulted in 72 deaths and highlighted significant socio-economic and safety disparities. The incident severely impact community-police relations, underscoring issues of trust and accountability. The aftermath prompted protests, emphasising demands for justice and more effective disaster management.

Toxteth: The Merseyside police force had, at the time, a poor reputation within the black community for stopping and searching young black men in the area. Over the weekend that followed, disturbance erupted into full-scale rioting, with pitched battles between police and youths.

Toxteth riots

St. Pauls: On April 2nd 1980, the police raided the Black and White Cafe. There are different narrations as to what led to the raid turning into a riot.Officers were quickly driven out of the area by a large crowd throwing missiles. Some involved in the disturbances argue a racist police force provoked it, but officers involved in the raid maintain they were just trying to prevent crime.

St. Pauls riots

The events of suicide bombings targeting London's public transport system underscored the threat of domestic terrorism and led to intensified efforts in counter terrorism, community policing to prevent radicalisation an the enhancement of the emergency response capabilities.



Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit

Leicestershire Police and Communities Together (LPACT) involves community events held with local black communities, where the focus is on discussing the four workstreams within the Police Race Action Plan.There has been a specific focus on not only the involvement of the police, but specific external organisations, as well as members of the community, to ensure the unique experiences and concerns of different black communities is recognised. A member of the local black community then facilitates the discussion around key questions. Attendees are encouraged to speak openly and share their thoughts, feelings and lived experiences.The discussion provides an avenue for black members of the community to air their views about policing and how it affects them. It also gives an opportunity for them to provide solutions to those problems and for the police to share on action already being taken. The discussions are currently carried out as a collective, however the possibility of having breakouts for smaller discussions and subsequently coming together is being explored.

Community engagement should be used to identify local priorities and inform problem-solving. Officers should use an evidence-based and innovative response, that target the underlying causes of problems and are tailored to local context.Sources of evidence, research and current interventions can be found on the College of Policing What Works site. During implementation of a problem solving initiative, systematic use of a structured problem-solving process,such as SARA should be used, involving communities in each stage of the problem-solving process.Neighbourhood problem-solving should: Give police and partners the ability to handle persistent problems impacting communities and offer assurance, as well as lessen the burden on partners and the police force, with a focus on crime prevention.

Problem Solving

What Works

Brixton Riots


The Brixton riots had a profound impact on public opinion of the police, particularly regarding issues of racism, policing tactics and the treatment of minority communities. The events highlighted concerns about social cohesion and the marginalisation of communities, prompting discussion about social and legal policy and the need for investment in affected areas.

The initial police and media blame on fans sparked widespread anger and mistrust. Subsequent enquiries, including the Taylor Report and the 2012 Hillsborough Independent panel, revealed police mismanagement and attempts to deflect responsibility. These findings eroded public trust and highlighted the need for police accountability.



Stephen Lawrence

On 22 April 1993, Stephen was killed in a racist attack by a gang of white men.The Macpherson report (1998) looking at the death of Stephen Lawrence, suggested the case had been dealt with in an institutionally racist way by the police, because the investigation had not been handled with the same care that a case involving a white person would have been.The investigation ultimately led to the overturning of the double jeopardy law.TW: Video contains some distressing scenes

The mistaken shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes by police officers who believed him to be a terror suspect, raised serious concerns about operational decisions and public accountability in counter-terrorism operations.

Jean Charles de Menezes


Beat meeting or PACT (Police and Communities Together) meeting bring together a collective of the community, offering the opportunity for key stakeholders in the community to voice concerns on crime, safety, local infrastructure updates, new housing developments and how that will affect them. This places an onus on accountability and transparency, creating a culture of collaboration. The meeting sshould focus on:

  • Capturing neighbourhood priorities and what is done about them
  • Capturing issues of service delivery raised at beat meetings and what is done about them
  • Tracking progress against agreed short/medium/long term outcomes.

Beat Meetings

Broken Windows Theory

Wilson and Kelling (1982) suggested that visible signs of disorder and neglect i.e. graffiti, broken windows and other forms of urban decay, can encourage ASB. This is due to the idea that the environment serves as an inhibition reducer and signals tolerance of criminal activity and the community is indifferent to more, or worsening criminal behaviour occurring. The theory underscores the importance of community engagement in maintaining public order. Active involvement of community members in reporting and addressing issues can help deter anti-social behaviour.

New Cross House Fire

The New Cross Fire killed 13 young Black people during a birthday party in a house in New Cross, southeast London on Sunday January 18, 1981. The party was a joint birthday celebration for Yvonne Ruddock and Angela Jackson and was held at 439 New Cross Road, going on throughout the night. There was a fairly high degree of racial tension in New Cross, as it was well known that the far right group the National Front were active in the area. It has been claimed that there had been early complaints about noise from the party leading the police to deduce that the house had been bombed either as a revenge attack or to stop the noise. When arrests were not forthcoming, the Black community was shocked by the indifference of the white population, and accused the London Metropolitan Police of covering up the cause, which they suspected was an arson attack motivated by racism.

Anecdotal evidence suggests it is having a positive impact despite being in early stages. Further walks and talks will help demonstrate commitment to sustained proactive engagement with young Somalian community members. They will facilitate more frequent contact, engagement, and collaborative working. Walk and talks provide a platform and opportunity for young Somalian communities to voice their concerns and for subsequent appropriate action to be taken. They also offer opportunities to engage with the police beyond the walk and talk encounter. Feedback received from Somalian community members involved in carrying out the walk and talk has been positive and constructive. They stated that they are happy to be part of more walk and talks. They found the experience to be eye-opening regarding awareness about the police and the issues they face, and they felt positively about assisting with engagement and change. The initiative appears to be having a positive impact on relationships between the police and Somalian community members.

Some people are likely to be particularly vulnerable to antisocial behaviour, such as young people and households with children, those living in less affluent areas and rented accommodation, and people in poor health and/or with disabilities (Innes and Weston, 2010). Types of vulnerability can be considered in three formats:

Personal vulnerability

Resulting from an individual or group’s characteristics, identity or status. Included here is mental or physical health status and long-term illness or disability. This also encompasses hate related abuse.

Situational vulnerability

Where the impact of ASB is increased because of where it happens such as socially or economically stressed neighbourhoods or areas with low level of social capital or high crime rates.

Incidental vulnerability

An incident of ASB likely to induce harmful effects for victims such as repeated occurrences and where victims believe they are being personally targeted.

In all incidences, it is important to Identify vulnerability and introduce techniques to mitigate the effect of ASB and prevent future harm.

The act introduced measures that expanded police powers, particularly in managing public order and dealing with protests, raves and trespass. The act sparked debate about civil liberties and the balance between the police and individual rights. Some communities viewed the act as overly authoritarian and highlighted the need for a balance between public cooperation and fostering community relations.

The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994


In 2017, the UK experienced several terrorist attacks including the Westminster attack, Manchester Arena bombing, London bridge attack and Finsbury Park attack. These incidents tested counter terrorism strategies, emergency response capabilities and community policing efforts to prevent radicalisation and subsequent hate crimes.

Terror attacks


Intended outcomes include:

  • Improved relationships with local black communities – more and long-term conversations and contact, better rapport between black communities and the police, and increased familiarity and engagement with local officers.
  • Increased understanding of policing about the areas of concern to local black communities and their thoughts, feelings and experiences relating to the Police Race Action Plan.
  • Identification of black communities’ areas of concern, action taken to address these, and black communities having influence over force decision-making.
  • Increased opportunity for black communities to engage with lay observation opportunities and gain an understanding about policing.
  • Increased trust, confidence and satisfaction of black communities towards policing.

LPACT appears to be enabling relationships between policing and black communities to improve by providing a long-term and sustainable platform for regular conversations and contact. Anecdotal evidence suggests rapport between the police and black communities attending the events is improving and that these individuals are becoming more familiar and are more regularly engaging with local officers involved. Through engagement with the events and analysis of areas of discussion during events, the police are gaining an understanding of black communities’ areas of concern and their thoughts, feelings and experiences relating to the Police Race Action Plan.

Working with other faculties within policing is essential in order to create a wider picture of the community and the challenges they face. Such as the work of an intelligence analyst. An analyst will identify patterns and inconsistencies in information, enabling them to draw inferences, so that operational decisions can be made on actions to take. This might include:

  • Enforcement activity
  • Additional information gathering on a crime and disorder reduction strategy
  • supports strategic decision making and the tactical deployment of resources to prevent, reduce and detect crime and disorder.
  • Identifies effective practice and lessons learnt through a review of tactical and strategic activity.
This is particularly useful in the development and evaluation of problem solving solutions embedded in research, data and theory.

Community engagement can be enabled through a range of structures, such as community meetings, advisory panels and oversight committees. This gives the public opportunity to participate in policing processes (e.g. audit, consultation, oversight) and which involve police sharing information with the public, enabling the community to have a voice in which may directly impact them.

It is essential officers are informative, keeping two-way conversations and being active within the community, including with partner organisations, especially organisations with a prominent voice within the community, such as community centres and local councillors.

Read the guidance from the College Of Policing and consider how you could actively demonstrate this in your role.


For the purpose of antisocial behaviour a repeat victim is defined as any person who has suffered more than 1 incident of antisocial behaviour in the last twelve months. A victim should be treated as ‘vulnerable’ if the frequency of the ASB impacts on their health, lifestyle, personal safety or quality of life.One current benchmark for identifying a repeat victim is three or more calls to the police within a one-year period. The potential impact of repeat victimisation is monumental, the consequences of repeat victimisation include poor mental health, diminished quality of life, avoidance behaviours, such as not wanting to leave the house or avoiding the area and a sense of fear and helplessness. The implication can be seen in the case of Fiona Pilkington below:


Fiona Pilkington, took her own life and that of her disabled daughter's, after enduring years of harassment and abuse from local youths. Despite numerous complaints to the the police, the harassment continued. The case highlighted a need for more effective interventions in supporting vulnerable and repeat victims of ASB.

Targeted foot patrol provides a visible policing presence within the neighbourhood. When combined with problem-solving and community involvement, targeted foot patrol can lower crime and antisocial behaviour, reassure the public, and improve their perceptions of the police. It also offers officers opportunities to have informal conversations, develop networks, gather community intelligence and find out about local problems.Targeted foot patrols can facilitate the opportunity to develop community mapping, as you are developing local knowledge of an area.

Targeted Foot patrol

The strike in 1984 had a significant impact on public opinion of the police. The strike increased polarisation in the public's view of the police as political tools to undermine the strike. There was widespread criticism of the police for their tactics during the strike, including the use of excessive force, mass arrests and the establishment of roadblocks to prevent miners' movement, resulting in violent police clashes.

Miner's strike


Identifying vulnerabilities and those most susceptible to harm in the community can allow you to develop proactive engagement strategies to mitigate challenges within the community. For this we can consider the THRIVE model:

  • Identify an individual’s vulnerability or vulnerabilities.
  • Understand how these vulnerabilities interact with the situation to create harm or risk of harm.
  • Assess the level of harm or risk of harm.
  • Take appropriate and proportionate action if required, involving partners where they have the relevant skills and resources.

A 9/11 led to increased security measures and increased focus on counter terrorism, including the passing of new laws to prevent terrorist activities.The events of 9/11 also caused widespread islamophobia, deeply impacting community relations and hate towards the Muslim community in the UK.



As a response to growing concerns about police powers, PACE introduced stricter rules and procedures for the police to follow, which aimed to increase accountability and transparency. This had the potential to improve trust relations between the police and communities. PACE sought to reduce instances of unjustified stops, which had been a source of confrontation between the police and ethnic minority groups.



To meaningfully engage with local black communities by: investing time into building and maintaining relationships in the long-term, and subsequently increasing trust, confidence, and satisfaction providing an opportunity for black communities to be heard and listen to their thoughts, feelings and experiences relating to the Police Race Action Plan’s workstreams, demonstrating that the police care offering black communities insight, including knowledge sharing and lay observation opportunities, to demystify the police enabling areas of concern to be identified, appropriate action to be taken, and involvement of black communities in force decision-making taking a proactive rather than reactive approach to community engagement

The role of partnership working in the community is critical for effective problem-solving, sharing and identifying problems and allocating non-police resources, reducing demand on frontline officers. The importance of collaboration can allow:

Holistic understanding of problems

Allows for a broader understanding of the issues facing the community by bringing together diverse perspectives and expertise. This can help identify the root cause of the problem rather than addressing them symptomatically.

Shared responsibility

By involving different stakeholders, the responsibility for the wellbeing of the community is shared, reducing the demand on the police. This collaborative approach recognises that many community issues, such as homelessness, mental health and youth services can be addressed in collaboration with specialised services.

Efficient use of resources

Partnerships enable the pooling of resources and expertise, leading to more efficient and effective solutions. Non-police bodies can provide targeted interventions, allowing a more tailored response. You may also be able to offer training in specific instances to help navigate particular challenges.

Enhanced public trust

Engaging community partners in problem solving efforts can enhance public trust and cooperation with both the police and other agencies. This is particularly important in communities with historically strained relations with the police, giving them a voice in decision making processes.

Problem solving

Partnerships facilitate a proactive approach to problem solving. By working together, stakeholders can identify a potential issue before it escalates into more significant problems. It can also combine various skills, experiences and knowledge leading to creative and effective interventions.

It is first important to identify the purpose of the community engagement, as this will affect your engagement method. For example, are you: building trust, such as after a critical incident or developing an initiative to being more responsive to people’s needs.Finding out which communities are currently interacting with the police and identifying the various communities within a neighbourhood are crucial steps in ensuring that community involvement is tailored appropriately. Inquire locally about the kind of interaction people would like to have with the police. Consider the obstacles to participation. Collaborate with partners to ascertain the current arrangements and engagement opportunities.

Community engagement

Windrush Scandal

The windrush scandal revealed the wrongful detention, denial of rights and deportation of Carribean migrants, legally residing in the UK. This significantly damaged trust between these communites and the police, exarcerbating feelings of alientation and suspicion. The scandal highlighted the need to show greater cultural sensitivity and awareness.

An obstacle in establishing meaningful and consistent community relations, is the limited time and resources officers have available to devote to fostering these connections, often due to the demands of their primary duties. This situation necessitates engaging with sergeants and inspectors to advocate for the importance of community engagement initiatives. The challenge is further compounded by the potential misalignment of these activities with the team's predefined targets. This may mean developing a compelling business case to elevate community engagement as a recognised priority.

The shooting of Mark Duggan caused mass rioting across England. The widespread unrest and looting posed substantial challenges for the police, leading to questions about police-community relations, social media's role in organising unrest and the need for effective riot response strategies.

London riots


The legislation introduced measures like ASBOs, impacting how police dealt with minor crimes and ASB, reflecting a shift towards more preventative policing.

Anti-social Behaviour, Crime and Policing Act


Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit


Child Q

Large protests were held across the United Kingdom. Many protests were organised by the Black Lives Matter (BLM) and Stand Up to Racism movements. As well as providing solidarity to protests in the United States, following the murder of George Floyd. Many of the ongoing protests in the United Kingdom were highlighting issues with racism faced from law enforcement in the United Kingdom. Clashes between protesters and police occurred on multiple occasions in central London. .

Child Q, who was 15 at the time, was strip-searched after being wrongly accused of possessing drugs, with no appropriate adult present at a school in Hackney, east London.The police officers involved faced a misconduct hearing. The allegations include that they discriminated against her due to her race and gender. The incident led to many protests breaking out in London, namely cataloguing many recent abuses of women by police, Diane Abbott, the MP for Hackney North and Stoke Newington, said: “What we are seeing is a pattern of police abuse of power in relation to women, particularly black women.”

It is widely recognised the crucial role the public play in aiding problem-solving, sharing information and gaining insights into the community. This recognition stems from the understanding that members of the public are at the core of community dynamics. They are capable of identifying issues, proposing targeted solutions for police intervention and partcipating in evaluating the effectiveness of these interventions. By facilitating opportunities for the public to volunteer safely within the community, such as within Neighbourhood Watch and Speed Watch schemes, can not only reduce demand on the police resources, but also build resilience, giving the community a voice. This collaborative relationship can help restore and strengthen trust in the police, within the community.

Role of the public

The Macpherson Report


After the investigation of the murder of Stephen Lawrence, the report concluded that the Metropolitan Police Service was institutionally racist, and identified 70 recommendations for reforming professionalism, culture and leadership within the service.The report's findings led to widespread public and political debate and has had a lasting impact on policing and race relations in Britain.

The community is an essential tool in developing problem solving initiatives. Read the following interventions utilised across forces

Key skills include:

  • Building rapport ​
  • Empathy​
  • Active listening ​
  • Using a procedurally just approach, for example, being open, respectful and honest, minimising biases and judgement ​
  • Awareness of internal motivations for disclosure
  • Developing cultural competence

Building rapport

Empowering and building collaboration between the police and communities needs to be a longer term process, enabling inidviduals to purposefully and positively participate. Ensuring a confident and proactive rapport with citizens is essential.

Procedurally just

Acknowledge people's subjective experiences of the quality of interactions that they have with the police. Officer should ensure they show respect, neutrality, trustworthy motives and participation.

Culturally competent

Cultural competence is the ability of a person to effectively interact, work, and develop meaningful relationships with people of various cultural backgrounds.

Social Media

Social media provides police with a way to connect with the public. In a consent-based policing system engagement is crucial in building public trust and confidence; social media enables the police to engage better and to build relationships, as well as to gather information and intelligence. This can be seen in the use of Missing person posts, posts about community engagement and information sharing.

PCSOs play a pivotal role in gathering intelligence, conducting visible patrols, and providing reassurance to the public with their presence. They engage with local businesses, families and communities to gain a deep understanding of their needs through direct conversations and active listening to the voices within the community. PCSOs can also be integral to problem solving interventions, leveraging their unique position within the community.

In late August and early September 1958, the London area of Notting Hill was the scene of racially motivated riots, in which white, working-class, ‘Teddy Boys,’ and others, displayed hostility and violence to the Black community in the area.The British African-Caribbean community felt that their accusations of racial attacks had not been taken properly by the Metropolitan Police. Despite testimony from individual police officers to the contrary, top police officials at the time informed Home Secretary Rab Butler that there was little to no racial motivation behind the disturbance, according to data made public in 2002.

Notting Hill race riots


The process and aftermath of Brexit created a climate of uncertainty and division within communities, exacerbating existing tensions and fostering new ones, particularly around issues of national identity, immigration and sovreignty. Brexit posed challenges in maintaining trust and cohesion in diverse communities, as the Police navigated increased hate crimes and racially motivated incidents and large scale protests.

The Policing Vision 2025 outlines high-level commitments to focus on proactive prevention, identification and addresing recurrent issues and individuals and adapt to local evidence of impact. This in turn can support efforts to build cohesive communities, share data, utilise academia to develop community engagement strategies.

​ The community you police is a dynamic and ever-changing variable, that will never have a "one size fits all" approach. The need to continue to change and tailor policing practices and understand the communities in which you work is the most effective way in building credibility and ultimately trust within a community.

As well as time, conflicting priorities and cost, there are many reasons why some communities are unwilling or unable to engage with the police. In the past, the police have found it difficult to access sections of the community. This may mean you need to play an active role in overcoming these barriers where they exist, particularly with groups that have negative connotations associated with the police or lack a collective community structure. Once a partnership within the community has been established, it is important to communicate consistently and clearly expectations, long-term goals and actions that you will carry out. In particular outlining any joint responsibilities, shared costs, information sharing expectations and priorities that may form a barrier within the partnership.

Located within the neighbourhoods team, officers are responsible for building trust and a positive policing presence within the community. They have a duty of care to the community in which they serve, offering support and a problem-solving mindset to overcome and resolve challenges within the community.Neighbourhood officers will:

  • Engage with communities to identify and understand the local issues affecting people’s safety, feelings of safety and quality of life.
  • Set local priorities and agree on what needs to be done to tackle the issues with communities and partners.
  • Work together and take action with our partners and communities to solve these local problems.
  • Provide feedback to communities on what is being done and what has been achieved to improve public confidence that we are dealing with issues that matter locally.

Businesses may experience ASB through intimidation, violence, harassment, verbal abuse, vandalism, property damage, graffiti, shoplifting, or anti-social drinking. This can significantly impact their reputation, operations and financial stability. Many businesses may choose to tackle ASB via non-policing routes such as installing CCTV or security personnel, in turn this adds to operational expenses. The presence of ASB also deters potential customers visiting the business, to avoid confrontation or becoming victims of crime.The presence of crime may also reduce property value of the premises and incur higher insurance premiums due to reputational and physical damage. A combination of interventions and evidence gathering by a variety of stakeholders, including businesses, can result in court orders being obtained to tackle those whose actions harm businesses and communities.