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An introduction to a few different areas of law.

Types Of Law



law making

Human rights






Corporate law (also known as business law, company law or enterprise law) is the body of law governing the rights, relations, and conduct of persons, companies, organizations and businesses

Corporate Law


What is it?

A corporate lawyer advises businesses on their legal rights and obligations. When a company hires a lawyer, they represent the corporation rather than individual shareholders or employees. Companies consult with corporate lawyers to ensure that their decisions comply with applicable laws and regulations. Corporate law encompasses all legal concerns concerning business ownership, formation, management and operation. A corporate lawyer's work description changes depending on their clients. They work with limited liability companies, alliances, partnerships and business trusts.

  • Contracts
  • Securities
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Venture capital
  • Corporate governance

What comes under this?


International law (also known as public international law and the law of nations) is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between states.

International Law


  • There are different types of international lawyers including; business or corporate attorneys, government-based lawyers, and private practitioners specializing in human rights and immigration laws.
  • Can be a public/ private sector international lawyer.
  • Ensure that businesses working globally are operating legally and being treated fairly in the international community.
  • May include briefing a company on the legal pros and cons of a new market, drafting company policy to meet national law standards in a foreign country, and overseeing business practices in foreign nations to ensure compliance with applicable laws.
  • Public sector international lawyers often prove vital in the drafting of trade agreements, international contracts, and the creation of international law.
  • In addition to working for national governments, public sector lawyers may also be employed by international organizations, such as the World Bank or the United Nations. International lawyers in this capacity often have an extremely broad knowledge of law in different nations, as well as excellent foreign language skills.
  • Issues in International courts (e.g. United Nations International Court of Justice) may include diverse topics such as war crime tribunals, customary law between nations, and new or revised treaty agreements. Although international court cases are extremely rare compared with national court case.

What would an international lawyer do?

What is it?

  • United Nations
  • Economic and Social Development
  • Genocides
  • World Bank
  • International Corporations
  • Trade
  • Human Rights
  • Diplomacy
  • Environmental Preservation
  • Sustainability
  • War Crimes

What comes under this?


Human rights are moral principles or norms for certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected in municipal and international law. They are commonly understood as inalienable, fundamental rights "to which a person is inherently entitled simply because she or he is a human being" , regardless of their age, ethnic origin, location, language, religion, ethnicity, or any other status.

Human Rights


  • The work of a human rights lawyer can be incredibly varied, as it revolves around the broad ranging rights set out in the Act. For example, rights such as ‘the right to life’, ‘to liberty’, ‘privacy’, ‘freedom of thought, conscience as religion,’ ‘freedom of expression,’ ‘peaceful enjoyment of your property’ and ‘right to an education’.
  • Some of these rights (e.g. not to be tortured) can’t be limited by the courts: other rights have limitations, to guard against unfairly damaging another individual’s rights. For example, the right to privacy and the right to freedom of expression are not always compatible.
  • The work of human rights lawyers therefore covers a wide range of law, from human rights and civil liberties to European law, public law, data protection and privacy, immigration, civil and criminal to name a few.
  • The work can be very high profile, with individuals taking on those in positions of authority (e.g. through actions against the police or miscarriages of justice); or the government and other bodies (taking cases to judicial review).


  • freedom from torture, inhuman or degrading treatment and slavery.
  • the right to an adequate standard of living
  • the right to the highest possible standard of physical and mental health
  • the right to education
  • the right to work and to decent work conditions
  • the right to life.
  • the right to a fair trial.
  • the right to privacy.
  • the right to vote.
  • freedom of expression.
  • freedom of religion or conscience.
  • freedom of assembly.

What could we cover?


Criminal law, the body of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected persons, and fixes penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.

Criminal Law


  • Prosecuting or defending someone accused of a criminal offence.
  • They are required to act in a neutral, impartial manner to ensure that the legal rights of those prosecuted are upheld and that they receive fair treatment against the conduct of the law.

What would a criminal lawyer do?

what is it?

  • Arson
  • Abuse
  • Assault
  • Basically anything illegal
  • Murder
  • Dishonesty offences
  • Road-traffic offences
  • Cybercrime
  • Robbery
  • Fraud

What comes under this?


Lawmaking is the process of crafting legislation.

Law Making


Parliamentary Lawmaking


  • In the UK, Parliament consists of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the monarch
  • for legislature to be enacted, it must be introduced as a Bill and passed through Parliament (making it an Act)
  • the Bill must recieve Royal Assent to be enacted, while legally, the monarch can refuse, by convention it is not witheld from a Bill that passes through both Houses.

Statutory Interpretation- how judges interpret the meaning of laws:

  • Literal Approach
  • Golden Approach
  • Mischief Approach
  • Purposive Approach
  • Aidds to Interpretation

Go into more detail about Parliament procedure:

  • Delegated Legislation
  • Parliamentary Supremacy
  • Influences on Parliament
  • The Impact Of EU Law and the Human Rights Act 1998

What else could we cover?


Jurisprudence is the philosophy and theory of law. It is concerned primarily with what the law is and what it ought to be. That includes questions of how persons and social relations are understood in legal terms, and of the values in and of law.



  • Contemporary philosophy of law, deals with general jurisprudence and addresses problems internal to law and legal systems and problems of law as a social institution that relates to the larger political and social context in which it exists.
  • Ancient natural law is the idea that there are rational objective limits to the power of legislative rulers. The foundations of law are accessible through reason, and it is from these laws of nature that human laws gain whatever force they have.
  • Analytic jurisprudence holds that there is no necessary connection between law and morality and that the force of law comes from basic social facts; and "legal realism", which argues that the real-world practice of law determines what law is, the law having the force that it does because of what legislators, lawyers, and judges do with it.
  • Normative jurisprudence is concerned with "evaluative" theories of law. It deals with what the goal or purpose of law is, or what moral or political theories provide a foundation for the law. It not only addresses the question "What is law?", but also tries to determine what the proper function of law should be, or what sorts of acts should be subject to legal sanctions, and what sorts of punishment should be permitted.

A Few Types

what is it?

  • Ancient Jurisprudence
  • Law And Power
  • Law And Sociology
  • Legal Positivism
  • Legal Realism
  • Legal Interpretivism
  • The Nature Of Law
  • Law And Morality
  • Theories Of Justice
  • Types Of Justice
  • The Rule Of Law
  • Legal Philosophers

What Else Could We Cover?


Medical law is the branch of law which concerns the prerogatives and responsibilities of medical professionals and the rights of the patient.

Medical Law


  • Reviewing medical documents, files, and receipts in connection with a medical lawsuit.
  • Medical lawyers advise legal clients on their rights during trial.
  • May keep evidence intact and preserved for trial (such as defective medicines or medical equipment).
  • May interpret medical laws, standards, and guidelines in the area (they can often vary by region and by medical practice).
  • Medical lawyers typically assist victims in obtaining a damages award to compensate them for their losses and injuries.

What do medical lawyers do?


  • Abortion law
  • Compulsory sterilization
  • The Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine
  • Euthanasia
  • Freedom of information
  • Government regulation
  • The law of torts (i.e. medical malpractice)
  • Criminal law in relation to medical practice and treatment.
  • The ethics of medical practice
  • Health law and regulation
  • Involuntary commitment
  • Involuntary treatment

What Else Could We Cover?


Family law (also called matrimonial law or the law of domestic relations) is an area of the law that deals with family matters and domestic relations.

Family Law


Family law is made up of three main areas of work: matrimonial, finance and child law. Many lawyers choose to specialise in either matrimonial law or child law, whilst others maintain a mixed client base. It can also cover domestic violence, guardianship, child abuse and neglect.


  • Draft, write and proofread legal documents.
  • Research the area of law that your client needs help with so you can find relevant recent and historic cases.
  • Build up legal cases.
  • Represent your client in court.
  • Lawyers working in family law are typically solicitors. As a solicitor in family law, these would be some of your tasks and responsibilities:
  • Meet with clients and discuss their specific cases, understanding why they need your help and what you can do to assist them.

What would a family lawyer do?

What is it?

What comes under it?


  • Adoption
  • Emancipation of children
  • Divorce
  • Collaborative divorce
  • Property division
  • Child custody
  • Child support (foster care)
  • Prenuptial and postnuptial agreements
  • Separation agreements
  • Enforcement and modification of family law court orders
  • Marital fault tort claims
  • Domestic violence issues
  • Surrogacy
  • Anything to do with family relationships.