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The Waltz of the Worker Proud to be / Among the proletariat / It's tough to get to the end of the month and to have to sweat and sweat to win our daily bread. This is my place, these are my people / We are workers, the preferred class For this reason, proletariat brother, with pride I sing you this song, we are the revolution. Yes, sir! the revolution, Yes, sir! Yes, sir! We are the revolution, Long live the revolution. I'm up to here/ putting up with these leeches, that rob me of my dignity. My life is wasting away tolerating this routine that suffocates me every day. Happy is the businessman, more callouses on my hands / my kidneys are going to burst / I don't have a f***ing dime, but I'm still paying for your state of well-being - Go! Resistance! Dance, brother, the waltz of the worker In this democracy there are many ready to profit by squeezing our social class. They don't give two f***s if you have fourteen kids / and your grandmother can't afford her operation. We are the workers, the foundation of this game in which the same sucker always loses, a game that's well thought out, in which they keep us silent and they f***you if you don't want to play Resistance! ska, ska, ska, ska Resistance!

Opening song shared by Sofia Frontera...Song excerpts below...






IS221 Week TWO Lecture, 2024Dr Nazanin Shahrokni





On the Agenda

Global Inequalities



Current Affairs



Theories of Global Development

Compare & Contrast Modernization & Development Theories

In the News Today: Global Inequalities

Oxfam's Inequality Inc. January 2024

1. Inquality in numbers

* Since 2020, the 5 richest men in the world have seen their fortunes more than double, while almost 5 billion people have seen their wealth fall. * If each of the five wealthiest men were to spend a million US dollars daily, they would take 476 years to exhaust their combined wealth. * The world’s richest 1% own 43% of all global financial assets. * The richest 1% globally emit as much carbon pollution as the poorest two-thirds of humanity. * Just 0.4% of over 1,600 of the world’s largest and most influential companies are publicly committed to paying their workers a living wage and support payment of a living wage in their value chains.

2-1. Global North owns the world

2. Visualizing inquality

2-2. Corporate power

2-3. We are (not) in this together

SO what is global inequality?


Global Inequality

Global inequality is the unequal distribution of resources, opportunities, and power that shape well-being among the 8 billion individuals on our planet. Global inequality is one way of understanding the different lived experiences of our fellow humans, no matter where they live. Economic inequality—the unequal distribution of income—is one strikingly visible dimension of global inequalities in well-being. Nobel Prize-winning economist Amartya Sen calls the array of things that make up well-being “capabilities.” Capabilities are essential “freedoms” that come from having adequate resources and the ability to use those resources with ease and purpose. Global inequality thus is not just about what people have and don’t have—but what they're able to do with what they have.

Global Development according to the UN

Development is a multidimensional undertaking to achieve a higher quality of life for all people.Sustained economic growth is essential to the economic and social development of all countries, in particular developing countries. Through such growth, which should be broadly based so as to benefit all people, countries will be able to improve the standards of living of their people through the eradication of poverty, hunger, disease and illiteracy, the provision of adequate shelter and secure employment for all and the preservation of the integrity of the environment. Development process of social change and transformation (assumed to be positive); it is a “right”.

Global Development according to Escobar

To understand development as a discourse, one must look at this system of relations, relations that define the conditions under which objects, concepts, theories, and strategies can be incorporated into the discourse. The system of relations establishes a discursive practice that sets the rules of the game: who can speak, from what points of view, with what authority, and according to what criteria of expertise; it determines the rules that must be followed for this or that problem, theory, or object to emerge and be named, analyzed, and eventually transformed into a policy or a plan (Arturo Escobar, 1999).

Discuss using class concepts

End of World War II; The Cold War; Decolonisation; Rise of the Developmental State

Use & Complete This Development Timeline





Modernisation & Dependency Theories; Rise of Liberalism

Collapse of the Soviet Union; Rise of Neoliberalism

Crises of Neoliberalism

Truman's Four Point Program, 1949

“…we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas…The United States is pre-eminent among nations in the development of industrial and scientific techniques…I believe that we should make available to peace-loving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge…What we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fair-dealing…” (January 1949)

Countries in the Point Four Program as of 1 July 1952


Modernization Theory

Nation 1

Nation 2

Nation 3

US & other modernized nations


It argues that rather than focusing on what udnerveloped countries are doing wrong, we should focus on how they have been wronged by richer nations

Dependency Theory







Both theories focus on inequalities between nations and not within nations

Modernization theory sees development as inevitable, Dependency theory sees underdevelopment as inevitable and as always entangled with development

Both are concerned with the same PROBLEM:Underdevelopment

Compare Theories of Global Development

Modernization theory focuses on microsociological factors, Dependency theory on macrosociological factors

Dependency theory highlights colonial legacies, Modernization theory neglects historical trajectories.

Thank you! Enjoy the rest of the week!