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Learning Theories

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Behaviorism

Cognitivism

Constructivism

Constructivism

Learning

Role in Memory

Characteristics

Theorist

Types of Learning

Cognitivism

Learning

Role in Memory

Theorist

Characteristics

Types of Learning

Behaviorism

Theorists

Characteristics

Role in Memory

Learning

Types of Learning

Behaviorism doesn’t directly explore the neurological or cognitive mechanisms of memory but provides a framework for understanding how behaviors associated with memory can be observed, shaped, and influenced by environmental factors.

B.F. Skinner was a prominent psychologist known for his influential work in behaviorism and his development of the theory of operant conditioning. He expanded upon the ideas of behaviorism initiated by earlier psychologists like John B. Watson. Skinner's key contributions revolved around the concept of operant conditioning, which focuses on how behavior is shaped by its consequences. He introduced the idea that behaviors could be strengthened or weakened through reinforcement or punishment, leading to the formation and extinction of behaviors.

Fredrick Skinner

John B. Watson was an influential American psychologist who played a significant role in the development of behaviorism, a school of thought in psychology that focuses on observable behaviors and how they are influenced by the environment.Watson's major contributions to behaviorism stemmed from his emphasis on observable behavior as the primary subject matter for psychology. He advocated for the idea that behavior could be studied scientifically, without delving into unobservable mental processes. Watson believed that behaviors are learned through conditioning and that the environment plays a crucial role in shaping and determining behavior.

John B. Watson

Behaviorism suggests that behaviors are learned through conditioning processes. Classical conditioning (Pavlov's experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning (Skinner's work with reinforcement and punishment) are central to behaviorist theories of learning.

Behaviorism primarily focuses on observable behaviors and how they are influenced by the environment. Therefore, types of learning that involve clear, observable responses to stimuli and are influenced by environmental factors tend to align well with behaviorist principlesFor example, implementing a consitent daily routine. The students are conditioned to know what is to be expected when they enter the classroom.

How does learning occur?

For Behaviorism, learning is believed to occur when the enviromnet stemulizes a response. For example, when a student completes a task, you reward them with a sticker or verbal praise. The student will then learn that if they do the right thing again, they will be rewarded.

constructivism views learning as an active, dynamic, and individualized process, where learners actively construct their knowledge by making connections, engaging in meaningful experiences, and interacting with their environment and peers.

Constructive learning foster active participation, critical thinking, collaboration, and the construction of knowledge through experiences, interactions, and reflection. They align with the constructivist view that learning is an active, individualized process where learners construct their understanding by interacting with the environment and engaging in meaningful learning experiences.

How does learning occur?

learning in cognitivism occurs through the active mental processes of acquiring, organizing, encoding, storing, retrieving, and applying information. It emphasizes the role of internal mental processes, cognitive structures, and strategies in learning and understanding.

Cognitivism excels in handling intricate learning tasks like reasoning, problem-solving, and information processing. Rather than focusing solely on content, it emphasizes how information is processed. Educators ought to impart cognitive strategies—like outlining, summarizing, and using graphic organizers—to assist students in effectively processing information and linking it to their prior learning.

How does learning occur?

In essence, constructivism views memory as an active process where learners construct their understanding through interactions, experiences, and connections with prior knowledge. It emphasizes the importance of meaningful, contextual, and experiential learning to enhance memory encoding, retrieval, and understanding.

Cognitivism is a psychological theory that focuses on internal mental processes, such as thinking, memory, problem-solving, and understanding Cognitivism contrasts with behaviorism by emphasizing the importance of internal mental processes, while behaviorism focuses more on observable behavior and external influences on behavior.

Constructivism views memory as an active process where individuals construct their understanding of the world based on their experiences and interactions. Memories are not passive recordings but are actively constructed and reconstructed as individuals engage with new information. This active involvement in constructing knowledge enhances memory retention.

Lev Vygotsky

  • Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory highlighted the role of social interaction, cultural context, and language in cognitive development. His emphasis on the social aspect of learning and the zone of proximal development (ZPD) contributed to constructivist ideas about learning as a collaborative and socially mediated process.

Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, is often associated with the early development of constructivist ideas. Piaget's work on cognitive development in children emphasized the active role of learners in constructing their understanding of the world through their experiences and interactions. His theories about stages of cognitive development and the importance of schemas or mental structures in learning laid the groundwork for constructivist principles.

Jean Piaget

In summary, cognitivism provides a framework for understanding memory by focusing on the cognitive processes involved in encoding, storing, and retrieving information. It explores how individuals process and manipulate information, highlighting the strategies, structures, and mechanisms underlying memory functions.

Jean Piaget presented the most extensive theory on cognitive development. He outlined cognitive growth through hierarchical stages that progressively increased in complexity: Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operations Formal operations

Jean Piaget

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Jerome Bruner advocated that prior learning served as the groundwork for future learning endeavors. He identified three key learning processes: Acquisition Transformation Evaluation

Jerome Bruner

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Clark, K. R. (2018a). Learning theories: Cognitivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 176–179. Clark, K. R. (2018b). Learning Theories: Constructivism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 180–182.Clark, K. R. (2018c). Learning Theories: Behaviorism. Radiologic Technology, 90(2), 172–175.Mowrer, R. R., & Klein, S. B. (2016). Handbook of Contemporary Learning Theories. Routledge. Ornstein, A. C., & Hunkins, F. P. (2016). Curriculum: Foundations, principles, and issues, 7/e (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

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