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Left KneeAnterior View

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The MCL is injured more frequently than the LCL.An MCL tear can be graded from I (mild - small tear) to III (severe - total tear).MCL tears are usually caused by a blow to the outer side of the knee and are therefore more common in contact sports.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injury

The cruciate ligaments - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) - help to stabilse the knee. Both ligaments are located inside the joint capsule.The ACL prevents anterior displacement of the tibia, posterior displacement of the femur, and limits hyperextenstion of the knee.The PCL prevents posterior displacement of the tibia, anterior displacement of the femur, and limits hyperflexion.

The Cruciate Ligaments

The LCL connects the femur with the head of the fibula on the outside of the leg.The LCL attaches to the latearl epicondyle of the femur and extends down to attach to the lateral surface of the fibular head.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) Attachments

The MCL connects the femur with the tibia.Superficially the MCL originates from the medial epicondyle of the femur and connects to the tibia in two places - the medial condyle of the tibia and the medial shaft of the tibia.The MCL also has a deep part that connects the femur, knee joint capsule, medial meniscus and tibia.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Attachments

The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) work together to secure the knee joint providing stability during movement.The MCL prevents excessive medial opening of the knee caused by valgus forces.The LCL prevents excessive lateral opening of the knee caused by varus forces.

Collateral Ligament Functions

The Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) and Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL) work together to secure the knee joint providing stability during movement.The MCL prevents excessive medial opening of the knee caused by valgus forces.The LCL prevents excessive lateral opening of the knee caused by varus forces.

Collateral Ligament Functions

Anterior view

Posterior view

The ACL runs from the anterior surface of the tibia to the posteromedial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle.The PCL runs from the posterior surface of the the tibia to the lateral surface of the medial femoral condyle.

Cruciate Ligament Attachments

A sprain or tear to the ACL is one of the most common knee injuries.A tear can range from mild (small tear) to severe (complete tear).The most common mechanism of injury involves a sudden pivoting or cutting maneuver while the foot is firmly planted.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury

The cruciate ligaments - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) - help to stabilse the knee. Both ligaments are located inside the joint capsule.The ACL prevents anterior displacement of the tibia, posterior displacement of the femur, and limits hyperextenstion of the knee.The PCL prevents posterior displacement of the tibia, anterior displacement of the femur, and limits hyperflexion.

The Cruciate Ligaments

A sprain or tear to the ACL is one of the most common knee injuries.A tear can range from mild (small tear) to severe (complete tear).The most common mechanism of injury involves a sudden pivoting or cutting maneuver while the foot is firmly planted.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injury