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Henry and Oscar

The Defeat of the Spanish Armada

Sun Tzu - The Art of War

"If you know yourself but not the enemy, for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat"

Mary, Queen of Scots

Elizabeth I of England

Alvarez de Toledo Duke of Alba

Individuals Involved

Phillip I of Castille

The Spanish Ambassador Desbes was suspicious that Elizabeth wanted to seize the ships cargos of loans of Geonesian banks. The Hugonauts saw shelter in England, Elizabeth seized all Spanish goods in England. Increased tension between Spanish and English.

What Happened?


When Elizabeth intervened in the Dutch Rebellions, 1585, she committed 126,000 pounds and 6,000 men. Worsening Spanish-English relations. Phillip supported Mary, Queen of Scots who was in Prison. He gave tactical advice to the Northern leaders, against the English. Two years later, he sent troops to Ireland in an attempt to kickstart a rebellion but quickly failed.

Cause 2

In May 1588, 130 ships and 50,000 men left Lisbon, and immediately encountered storms in the Bay a Biscay, the battle plan strictly said the fleet was to engage in the channel if they were attacked. If not they were to meet with the rest of their force at gravelines and transport the army to the English coast. The Commander's strict adherence to the battle plan, when the ships of the armada had landed at Calais, the Duke of Parma's army had not arrived and their formation was broken by the use of English fire ships. Spanish cut the anchor and were at the mercy of the English.

What Happened?

Course of the Battle

Despite this, the armada was able to make it to Parma in Calais, but they were ultimately left to the weather. They wanted to secure England in order to move their ships safer, but they were unable to do so. This also led to the increase of naval power in England and gave much exposure to England having defeated a massive power like Spain.

What happened after the battle?


Huge victory for English Protestantism, and a loss for Spanish Catholosism. The Spanish Armada's failure had broader implications for the balance of power in Europe. It weakened the Habsburg dynasty's influence, as Spain was a part of the Habsburg Empire. This contributed to the rise of the Dutch Republic and strengthened Protestant resistance against Catholic Habsburg rule.

Consequences 2