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Transcript

PARIS

2015

MARRAKECH

2016

FIJI

2017

Katowice

2018

+ INFO

+ INFO

+INFO

+INFO

TIMELINE OF COPs

COP21-COP24

COP21

COP22

COP23

COP24

COP25-COP28

madrid

2019

glasgow

2021

sharm el-sheikh

2022

dubai

2023

+ INFO

+ INFO

+INFO

+INFO

TIMELINE OF COPs

COP25

COP26

COP27

COP28

COP25-COP28

COP21-COP24

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Creation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC)

Global goal on adaptation: challenge faced by all

Plans to formulate / implement national adaptation plans

Establishment of loss and damage as a separate concept

1

COP21: PARIS, 2015 (PART ONE)

Creation of the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM)

Common but Differentiated Responsibilities Principle

2

Paris ageement to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

PART 2

3

Article 8 of the Paris Agreement is solely dedicated to loss and damage. [1]

  • This was as a major achievement as the matters of loss and damage was recognised distinctively from references to adaptation.

Article 7 of the Paris Agreement establishes a global goal on adaptation, recognising how it is a global challenge faced by all. [1]

Article 7.9 particularly highlights that all parties shall engage in adaptation planning process, including the process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans.

Article 4 of the Paris Agreement states that parties shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDC) [1]

Article 8 also recognised the Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) was as the UN body to tackle matters relating to Loss and Damage.

Article 4 of the Paris Agreement also states that developed country parties should continue taking the lead in undertaking absolute economy-wide reduction targets to reflect the common but differentiated responsibilities principle [1]

Article 6 of the Paris Agreement states that “a mechanism to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions [...] is hereby established under the authority and guidance” of COP [1]

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Common but differentiated responsibilities principle

Conserve and restore ecosystems (carbon sinks)

Financial contribution towards the REDD+ framework

Recital 13 of Paris Agreement: Protection of all ecosystems

4

COP21: PARIS, 2015 (PART TWO)

Fourth Oceans Day,Because the Ocean Declaration

Human rights as a component of climate action

5

Centrality of justice in the fight against climate change

COP22

6

Recital 13 of the Preamble to the Paris Agreement notes that climate action must incorporate the protection of all ecosystems, with the inclusion of the ocean and its biodiversity [1].

  • Article 5 reaffirms parties’ commitments to the conservation and the restoration of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, first made under Article 4, Paragraph 1(d) of the UNFCCC [1,22].

Article 5, Paragraph 1 of the Paris Agreement reaffirms parties’ commitments to the conservation and restoration of ecosystems in their capacity as carbon sinks. Article 5, Paragraph 2 of the Agreement emphasises the particular need to conserve and sustainably manage forests [1,25].

COP21 saw significant financial contributions from UNFCCC parties towards the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework, first established at COP13 in 2008 [26,27].

Article 2, Paragraph 2 of the Paris Agreement reiterates the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

  • The importance of considering different national circumstances, which may change over time [1,29].

COP21 hosted the fourth Oceans Day:

  • Draft policy recommendations regarding the impacts of climate change, means of mitigating and adapting and the need for sustainable management of the ocean [23].
22 parties signed the Because the Ocean Declaration:
  • IPCC Special Report on the ocean and climate, a UN Ocean Conference and greater inclusion of issues relating to the ocean and climate within the UNFCCC [24].

Recital 11 of the Preamble to the Paris Agreement encourages UNFCCC parties to consider the importance of human rights as a component of climate action [1,28].

Recital 13 of the Preamble to the Paris Agreement notes the centrality of climate justice to the fight against climate change, although it caveats this as being important only to “some” [1].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Facilitative dialogue among parties

Discussions about utilising the Adaptation Fund

Countries expressed their views on the fund by Mar 2017

First review of the WIM

COP22: MARRAKECH, 2016 (PART ONE)

Five-year work plan for the WIM's executive committee

1

Negotiations around developing Paris 'rulebook'

2

PART 2

COP21

3

Article 8 of the Paris Agreement is solely dedicated to loss and damage. [1]

  • This was as a major achievement as the matters of loss and damage was recognised distinctively from references to adaptation.

Article 7 of the Paris Agreement establishes a global goal on adaptation, recognising how it is a global challenge faced by all. [1]

Article 7.9 particularly highlights that all parties shall engage in adaptation planning process, including the process to formulate and implement national adaptation plans.

Article 4 of the Paris Agreement states that parties shall prepare, communicate and maintain successive nationally determined contributions (NDC) [1]

The Warsaw International Mechanism (WIM) was also recognised as a the UN body that tackles matters relating to loss and damage in Article 8.

Article 4 of the Paris Agreement also states that developed country parties should continue taking the lead in undertaking absolute economy-wide reduction targets to reflect the common but differentiated responsibilities principle [1]

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

First Climate Justice Day

Forest Action Day: Conserve, Mitigate, Finance

Roadmap to Ocean and Climate Action

COP22: MARRAKECH, 2016 (PART TWO)

Oceans Action Day: Discussions, Projects

4

Marrakech Action Proclamation

5

COP23

PART 1

6

Second Because the Ocean Declaration: 33 signatories

Building upon Oceans Day at COP21, Oceans Action Day at COP22 saw the launch of the Roadmap to Ocean and Climate Action (ROCA), a five-year plan for integrating the role of the ocean into the work of the UNFCCC and its parties [30].

During Forest Action Day at COP22, parties announced initiatives to conserve forests and improve their management, with mitigation and finance once again being the focus [34].

  • Significant proportion of climate finance was directed towards nature-based climate mitigation efforts, e.g. the REDD+ framework [33].

COP22 hosted the first Climate Justice Day, during the course of which discussions were held regarding human rights and how to better integrate them into UNFCCC processes [37].

Showcases of a variety of regional projects linking the ocean and climate action, the mitigation of climate change impacts upon the ocean, adaptation to those impacts, and the need for capacity development and financing for the ‘blue economy’ [31].

Little progress was made regarding climate justice at COP22, which focused upon implementing the Paris Agreement, although the Marrakech Action Proclamation called for greater support for those most vulnerable to climate change [35,36].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

A second Because the Ocean Declaration was signed by 33 parties during COP22.

  • Calling upon all UNFCCC parties to include issues relating to the ocean and climate within their Nationally Determined Contributions [32].

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Continued negotiations on the Paris 'rulebook'

Decision on Adaptation Fund and Paris Agreement

More than $90m in new pledges to the Adaptation Fund

Discussions on making loss and damage as a standing agenda item: failures

COP23: FIJI, 2017 (PART ONE)

Suva expert dialogue and its limitations

Summary of parties' views on the accounting of NDCs

1

2

PART 2

COP22

3

The G77 argued for a standing agenda item on loss and damage beyond WIM reports for vulnerable countries to receive support. [3]

  • Developed countries disagreed on this matter. [4]

It was decided that the Adaptation Fund “shall” serve the Paris Agreement (subject to decisions to be taken at CMA 1-3) [12].

The Adaptation Fund received more than $90m in new pledges during COP23 [13].

Negotiations surrounding the development of the Paris ‘rulebook’ continued [13].

Instead, the Suva expert dialogue promoted knowledge-sharing on similar issues. [4]

  • This included topics such as loss and damage, finance, and capacity-building.
  • However, the dialogue saw little to no participation from developed countries. [5]

The COP23 co-chairs released a 180-paged document summarising parties’ views on the accounting of NDCs during COP23 [18].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Elevated vulnerability of Small Island Developing States (SIDS)

Forests Day:Local and indigenous peoples

Ocean Pathway Initiative; Inclusion of ocean in NDCs

COP23: FIJI, 2017 (PART TWO)

Oceans Action Day: 'blue carbon', warming

Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples’ Platform and the Gender Action Plan

4

5

COP24

PART 1

6

First Progress Report on Oceans and Climate (ROCA)

Launch of the Ocean Pathway Partnership, aimed at promoting the inclusion of the ocean within UNFCCC parties’ Nationally Determined Contributions and the development of financial mechanisms to support ocean-based solutions in priority areas [38].

Forests Day at COP23 comprised various discussions regarding the role of forest ecosystems in climate action, the need for considering local and indigenous communities, and concern being expressed over emissions resulting from deforestation [43].

COP23 saw an increasing focus on the elevated vulnerability of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to climate change, but it failed to achieve significant progress on some climate justice-related issues, such as Loss and Damage [44].

Oceans Action Day continued discussions on the ocean and climate.

  • Recognition of the importance of ‘blue carbon’, the financial value of natural capital, the need for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, and the potential impact of human displacement because of rising and warming waters [39,40].

Operationalisation of both the Local Communities and Indigenous Peoples’ Platform and the Gender Action Plan, to facilitate the engagement of different underrepresented groups in UNFCCC processes [44].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

The first Progress Report on Oceans and Climate under the ROCA Initiative:

  • Report on ocean-based solutions from the Ocean and Climate Initiatives Alliance, and the signing of the Because the Ocean Declaration by four new parties [41,42]

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Concluded negotiations on the Paris 'rulebook'

Decision on Adaptation Fund and Paris Agreement

Recognition of loss and damage in Global Stocktake

1

COP24: KATOWICE, 2018 (PART ONE)

'Voluntary cancellation' of carbon offsets

2

PART 2

COP23

3

Talanoa dialogue and preparation of NDCs

Loss and damage was recognised as a component as part of the “global stocktake”, which evaluates progress on the Paris Agreement [6].

Decided that the Adaptation Fund shall serve the Paris Agreement from 1 January 2019 [14].

Negotiations surrounding the development of the Paris ‘rulebook’ concluded [19].

A 'voluntary cancellation' of CO2 offsets rather than the push for its automatic cancellation [19].

  • To ensure an 'overall mitigation in global emissions' (Paris Agreement, Article 6.4) by NGOs and vulnerable countries [19].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

Final text from the Talanoa dialogue (which began in January 2018) “invite[d]” countries to “consider” the outcomes of the dialogue in preparing their NDCs for 2020 [19].

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Unsuccessful attempt to operationalise climate justice

Katowice Ministerial Declaration on Forests for the Climate

IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5C

4

COP24: KATOWICE, 2018 (PART TWO)

Katowice Committee of Experts on the Impacts of the Implementation of Response Measures (KCI)

5

COP25

PART 1

6

Ocean Pathway Partnership: Stakeholder Discussion

Oceans Action Day focused on the IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5OC, including the adaptation to climate impacts upon the ocean, displacement induced by those impacts and securing climate finance for ocean and climate initiatives [45,46].

Poland released the Katowice Ministerial Declaration on Forests for the Climate, seeking to raise awareness of the role of forests as carbon sinks and to encourage UNFCCC parties to preserve them so that they continue to fulfil this function [48].

COP24, similar to COP22 and COP23, was focused upon implementing the Paris Agreement, although an attempt to operationalise the human rights components of the Paris Agreement’s Preamble during the conference was unsuccessful [49,50].

Establishment of the Katowice Committee of Experts on the Impacts of the Implementation of Response Measures (KCI), a UNFCCC body designed to support climate mitigation measures in achieving a just transition [51].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

A year on from its launch, the Ocean Pathway Partnership engaged various stakeholders in a discussion on the ocean and climate inspired by COP23’s Talanoa Dialogue [47].

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Continued negotiations on the Paris 'rulebook'

Decision on Adaptation Fund and Paris Agreement

More than $90m in new pledges to the Adaptation Fund

Discussions on making loss and damage as a standing agenda item: failures

1

COP25: MADRID, 2019 (PART ONE)

Suva expert dialogue and its limitations

Summary of parties' views on the accounting of NDCs

2

PART 2

COP24

3

The G77 argued for a standing agenda item on loss and damage beyond WIM reports for vulnerable countries to receive support. [3]

  • Developed countries disagreed on this matter. [4]

It was decided that the Adaptation Fund “shall” serve the Paris Agreement (subject to decisions to be taken at CMA 1-3) [12].

The Adaptation Fund received more than $90m in new pledges during COP23 [13].

Negotiations surrounding the development of the Paris ‘rulebook’ continued [13].

Instead, the Suva expert dialogue promoted knowledge-sharing on similar issues. [4]

  • This included topics such as loss and damage, finance, and capacity-building.
  • However, the dialogue saw little to no participation from developed countries. [5]

The COP23 co-chairs released a 180-paged document summarising parties’ views on the accounting of NDCs during COP23 [18].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Renew of Gender Action Plan for another five years

Interconnectedness of climate and biodiversity crises

Numerous discussions on nature-based solutions (NbS)

COP25 as the 'Blue COP' with its incorporation of the ocean

4

COP25: MADRID, 2019 (PART TWO)

Call to hold an Ocean and Climate Change Dialogue

Establishment of a work plan for the KCI

5

COP26

PART 1

6

Launch of Platform for Science-Based Ocean Solutions

Coming in the wake of the IPCC’s Special Report on the Oceans and Cryosphere, COP25 was hailed as the ‘Blue COP’ for its greater incorporation of the ocean into climate discussions and solutions [52,53].

Paragraph 15 of the Chile-Madrid Time for Action highlighted the role of the natural environment in climate mitigation and adaptation, recognising the interconnectedness of the climate and biodiversity crises and the need to address them together [54,58].

COP25 saw numerous discussions on nature-based solutions (NbS) to address climate change and of connecting climate action to efforts to preserve biodiversity [59,60].

  • Santiago Call for Action on Forests to factor agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) into NDCs [61].

Having run for two years since COP23, the Gender Action Plan was renewed for another five years at COP25, with the aim of further integrating women into UNFCCC and individual party processes [62].

Paragraph 31 of the Chile-Madrid Time for Action decision called for the Subsidiary Board for Scientific and Technological Advice to hold an Ocean and Climate Change Dialogue the following year [54,55].

COP25 established a workplan for the KCI, noting the need to consider the social impacts of any climate mitigation measures, particularly upon local communities, indigenous peoples, women, and young people [63].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

Chile launched the Platform for Science-Based Ocean Solutions as a guide for UNFCCC parties in incorporating the ocean into their soon-to-be renewed Nationally Determined Contributions and in utilising nature-based solutions to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change upon the ocean [56,57].

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

153 countries put forward new 2030 emission targets

Developed nations: double funding by 2025 ($40b)

$356m in new pledges to the Adaptation Fund

Settling for Glasgow Dialogue on funding for loss & damage

1

COP26: GLASGOW, 2021 (PART ONE)

Paris rulebook was finalised, including NDC timeline...

2

PART 2

COP25

3

Developed the Global Goal on Adaptation and programmes

Glasgow Climate Pact

Negotiators settle for the Glasgow Dialogue, allowing parties to discuss arrangements for the funding for matters relating to loss and damage [8].

Developed nations agreed to at least double funding by 2025, amounting to at least $40 billion [16].

The Adaptation Fund received new pledges for $356 million for 2022 [16].

153 countries put forward new 2030 emission targets [20].

Paris rulebook was finalised, including on transparency, Article 6 on carbon markets, and timeframes for future NDCs [20].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

Developed the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA), aimed to strengthen resilience and reduce vulnerability to climate impacts [16].

  • Glasgow-Sharm el-Sheikh work program for the GGA (2022-2024) to improve progress towards the adaptation goal [16].

Glasgow Climate Pact 'emphasises the urgent need for Parties to increase their efforts to collectively reduce emissions through [...] domestic mitigation measures in accordance with' Article 4.2 [21].

  • It also 'requests Parties to revisit' the 2030 targets in their NDCs, in alignment with the Paris Agreement [21].

OCEANS

BIODIVErSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use

Extensive discussion of nature-based solutions

Ocean for the Climate Declaration

4

COP26: GLASGOW, 2021 (PART TWO)

Significant focus upon climate finance

5

COP27

PART 1

6

Common but differentiated responsibilities principle

Recognition of the need to preserve marine ecosystems

Release of the final report of the ROCA initiative

Various civil society groups signed the Ocean for Climate Declaration, calling upon the parties of the UNFCCC to uphold their commitments under the Paris Agreement with consideration for the ocean and the need for a just transition [64].

With the Glasgow Leaders’ Declaration on Forests and Land Use,

  • Significant funding dedicated to forest conservation, restoration and management,
  • With 141 parties committing to combat deforestation and land degradation whilst supporting rural communities and working towards global food security [67].

COP26 saw extensive discussion of nature-based solutions, despite the term raising concerns about potential land seizure from indigenous peoples and later being removed from the final text of the Glasgow Climate Pact [60,68].

COP26 saw a significant focus upon climate finance, with Article 11 of the Glasgow Climate Pact calling upon developed countries to significantly increase adaptation financing for developing countries after their previous failure to do so [21].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

Article 23 of the Glasgow Climate Pact reaffirmed existing UNFCCC commitments to act in line with common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

  • Specific attention was given to the needed work to eradicate poverty [21,69,70].

Recital 7 of the Preamble to the Glasgow Climate Pact noted the need to preserve marine ecosystems and their biodiversity, with Article 21 of the Pact subsequently recognising the role of those ecosystems as carbon sinks [21].

COP26 saw a variety of discussions held and initiatives presented, alongside the release of the final report of the ROCA Initiative and a reaffirmation of the Because the Ocean Declaration [65,66].

LOSS AND DAMAGE

ADAPTATION

MITIGATION

Finalised Mitigation Work Program (MWP)

Concern over unfulfiled pledges to the Adaptation Fund

Fraught negotiations for the adaptation goal

Established the loss and damage fund

1

COP27: SHARM EL-SHEIKH, 2022 (PART ONE)

Established institutions of the Santiago Network

First ministerial roundtable on pre-2030 mitigation

2

PART 2

COP26

3

Established the loss and damage fund [9].

Developing countries were strongly concerned over the unfulfilled pledges of developed countries to the Adaptation Fund [17].

Observers claimed that negotiations for the adaptation goal (which started in COP26) were fraught [17].

  • Countries agreed to develop a framework for delivering the goal and tracking progress towards it [17]

Finalised the mitigation work program (MWP) to scale up mitigation ambition and implementation; to run until 2026 earliest [17].

  • Final text stresses a “non-prescriptive” and “non-punitive” approach for the imposition of new goals for NDCs [17].

Established the institutional arrangements of the Santiago Network [10].

First high-level ministerial roundtable on pre-2030 mitigation ambition took place [17].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

OCEANS

BIODIVERSITY & FORESTS

JUST TRANSITION

Establishment of a loss and damage fund

Need to address climate change & biodiversity loss in concert

Call for both an end and reversal of deforestation

New facilitation mechanism for the annual Ocean and Climate Change Dialogue

COP27: SHARM EL-SHEIKH, 2022 (PART TWO)

4

First Ocean Pavilion within the Blue Zone

5

PART 1

6

Conservation and restoration of marine ecosystems

Section 13 of the Sharm el-Sheikh Implementation Plan is devoted to the ocean:

  • Article 45 establishes a new facilitation mechanism for the annual Ocean and Climate Change Dialogue
  • Article 46 further encourages parties to factor ocean-based climate action into their NDCs [71].

Recital 13 of the Preamble to the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan highlighted the necessity of addressing climate change and biodiversity loss in concert through the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of ecosystems [71].

Section 14 of the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan was dedicated to forests.

  • Article 47 calls for an end to and a reversal of deforestation [71].
  • Article 48 encourages UNFCCC parties to incorporate nature-based solutions into their mitigation and adaptation strategies [71].

One of the foremost achievements of COP27 was the establishment of a loss and damage fund through which developed countries with significant historic emissions will provide financial support for countries dealing with the most significant impacts of climate change [73].

COP27 hosted the first Ocean Pavilion within the Blue Zone, with numerous events and discussions relating to the ocean and climate action and various initiatives, including financing to preserve blue carbon ecosystems, being launched [71,72].

Homepage: Timeline of COPs

Recital 9 of the Preamble to the Sharm El-Sheikh Implementation Plan reaffirmed the need to preserve marine ecosystems, whilst Recital 12 emphasised the importance of such ecosystems for climate adaptation [71].

  • Article 15: These can serve as mitigation to help meet Paris Agreement targets [71].