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Introduction

Let's GEt started

Literacy is fundamental to all areas of learning, as it unlocks access to the wider curriculum. The skills for literacy are organised under 3 headings: Talking and Listening - Reading - WritingThese skills are interdependent:

  • We use talking and listening skills to be able to read.
  • We use talking, listening and reading skills to write.
Development of literacy skills, with lots of opportunities to explore, should take place within a literacy rich environment. This resource will support your understanding of how to develop each of these skills. At times, it is appropriate to teach these skills discretely while always remembering their interdependency.

When and who should teach these skills?

Framework index with links to pages

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Reading

Talking & listening

Writing

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P2

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Reading

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Talking & listening

Writing

Self-evaluation

StartHere

P3

SElf-evaluation tool

Step 1: Download the handy tool Step 2: Practitioner completes the evaluationStep 3: (whole school) Collate evaluations and identify professional learning needs as a staffStep 4: (individual) identify professional learning needsStep 5: Use the index page to take you straight to the professional learning you need

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index

Writing

Download

P4

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Writing Key messages

Links to reading and T&L

Understanding the reason to write ... Genre

Grammar is best taught in the context of student writing

Write about what you know or what you are reading about when learning to write to reduce working memory

Writing should have an authentic audience

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Both editing and revising should be used to uplevel writing

Click anything blue if you want to know more

Planning cycle

P5

Motivation

Sentences and puctuation

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Writing

3

Writing for learning

Learning to Write

SPOTLIght On...

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P6

Learning To WRite

Sentence creation is the foundations of all writing

Working memory and writing skills are closely intertwined. Written expression can be difficult when students have working memory deficits.

The 'Simple View of Writing' is a theory that writing has three basic components: composition, transcription, executive function. All require using working memory.

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Writing should have an authentic audience

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Write about what you know or what you are reading about

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reading Rope

P7

• Dramatic play allows children to explore roles and themes, beginnings, endings, and transitions, all of which are vital to the writing process.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

The SImple View of Writing

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P9

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Image Learning Difficulty Australia

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Composition

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Es &Os

If you don’t know what a sentence or paragraph is you won’t be able to write one

Ideas –topic knowledge, imitation, genre Words – vocab, word choice Sentences – types, grammar & syntax awareness, punctuation structure

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reading Rope

Read what you are writing

Teach vocabulary and word choice

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Plan your composition at all levels

P10

Plan collobortively to support gaps in culture capital

LIT 1-11a / LIT 2-11a I regularly select and read, listen to or watch texts which I enjoy and find interesting, and I can explain why I prefer certain texts and authors LIT 0-01b / LIT 0-11b I enjoy exploring and choosing stories and other texts to watch, read or listen to, and can share my likes and dislikes LIT 0-14a I use signs, books or other texts to find useful or interesting information and I use this to plan, make choices or learn new things. Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select, sort and use information for a specific purpose LIT 1-14a Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select and sort information from a variety of sources and use this for different purposes LIT 2-14a To help me understand stories and other texts, I ask questions and link what I am learning with what I already know LIT 0-07a / LIT 0-16a / ENG 0 -17a I can share my thoughts about structure, characters and/or setting, recognise the writer’s message and relate it to my own experiences, and comment on the effective choice of words and other features ENG 1-19a I can: •discuss structure, characterisation and/or setting • recognise the relevance of the writer’s theme and how this relates to my own and others’ experiences • discuss the writer’s style and other features appropriate to genre ENG 2-19a

Composition

Professional learning

Effective Reading InstRuction

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P11

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reading Rope

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Composition EArly years

Effective writing InstRuction

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reading Rope

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P11

  • Support children’s composition by reading stories, talking to children, re-phrasing what they have said and modelling correct sentence structure. This will support children to share their ideas and help them to develop an understanding of how sentences are formed.
  • Opportunities for children to capture their thinking and structure it for a range of purposes and audiences are essential. For example, record names of characters in their favourite picture books, make invitations to members of their family for parties, shows or local events.
  • Role play about everyday experiences and provide opportunities to write in all areas of the playroom, for example, in an office using a keyboard, answering a phone and writing a shopping list.
  • Retelling stories ine correct sequence using ????. What it the name of the stick picture drawing???

Need video

Composition First to second Level

Effective writing InstRuction

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reading Rope

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P11

Composition SEcondary BGE & SEnior Phase

Effective writing InstRuction

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P11

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Transciption

Es &Os

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Handwriting: motor skills, formation, Typing Spelling

reading Rope

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Language acquisition starts at home: Engaging with parents and families can boost a child’s vocabulary. Provide opportunities for parents to engage with their child through support or cooperative sessions:

  • Encourage parents to read aloud to their child as part of their daily routine
  • Identify if families need support or resources – are their opportunities for children to take books home to read for pleasure? Do parents need support with literacy?
  • Model for parents the ways we can engage with a story when reading it aloud.
  • Record stories for parents to listen to alongside their child.
  • Provide new ways for families to interact, e.g. talk homework to discuss a hot topic, cooking or baking together, curriculum events where children share their learning with a family member.
If a gap already exists then consider how you will close that gap for every learner in your establishment - upskilling parents at this point will help but won't be enough!

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Dedicated time should be spend on handwriting to prevent cognitive load

Gross and fine motor skills are the foundations of fluent handwriting

Stages of emergent writer

See Ellis pictures check we can use

Formation and reading of sounds are interdependent Spelling – teach root words , prefixes and suffixes

P12

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Plan and select the content and think about the strategies, processes, and skills you want to put into practice with your students to achieve the objectives you've set.

Divide your plan into stages or steps. We're suggesting the most common ones but you can expand on them and/or change their names.

Set learning objectives or outcomes. What new skills or abilities will students have when they finish this unit?

LIT 0-10a As I listen and take part in conversations and discussions, I discover new words and phrases which I use to help me express my ideas, thoughts and feelings ENG 0-12a / LIT 0-13a / LIT 0-21a I explore sounds, letters and words, discovering how they work together, and I can use what I learn to help me as I read and write LIT 1-10a I can communicate clearly when engaging with others within and beyond my place of learning, using selected resources as required. LIT 2-10a / LIT 3-10a I am developing confidence when engaging with others within and beyond my place of learning. I can communicate in a clear, expressive way and I am learning to select and organise resources independently.

Words that need explicit teaching fall into three categories in order for them to incorporate them into their sight vocabulary Careful consideration needs to be given when choosing which words to focus on, with the ideal choice be a “Goldilocks” word:

Divide your plan into stages or steps. We're suggesting the most common ones but you can expand on them and/or change their names.

Divide your plan into stages or steps. We're suggesting the most common ones but you can expand on them and/or change their names.

transcription

Effective Reading InstRuction

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Professional learning

reading Rope

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P13

transcription

Effective Reading InstRuction

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Professional learning

reading Rope

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P13

Transciption EArly Years

Effective writing InstRuction

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P11

  • Develop core strength and ‘muscle isolation’ through activities like reaching across the body to put on socks and shoes help children to use their right, or left, body side without the other side moving at the same time. Encouraging activities like climbing, throwing and catching.
  • Develop stomach, shoulder and trapezoid muscles required to sit at a table to write. Heavy work and outdoor physical play has an essential role in developing this. Children need to move in order to be able to sit.
  • Provide opportunities to develop their finger strength. Develop fine motor skills of grasping, holding to strengthen fingers and thumbs through using scissors, learning to sew, eating with cutlery, using small painting brushes or tweezers.
  • Children move through stages in their mark making. Gradually muscle control becomes more defined until they develop an ability to use straight lines and curves to form symbols.
  • Practitioners should encourage and motivate children to make plausible attempts to behave like a writer and to draw freely, making marks that have meaning.
  • Children should be offered a range of opportunities to mark make with different materials. For example, wet and dry sand, corn flour, foam, markers, chalk, charcoal, pens and of course pencils, to name a few.
  • • Listening to children talking and modelling how to write down the words they say helps children to see how sounds become words on paper.
  • • Practitioners who model writing support children to understand language patterns, develop their thinking skills, solve problems and make sense of their experiences

Transcription First to second Level

Effective writing InstRuction

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reading Rope

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P11

Transcription SEcondary BGE & SEnior Phase

Effective writing InstRuction

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P11

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Executive Function

Es &Os

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t goes hand in hand with self-regulation, which helps children feel up to the task of staying organised and getting things done

The arrangement of words in a phrase or sentence can change the meaning: Notice how moving the word only changes the meaning of the entire sentence. Only Batman fights crime. Meaning: Batman is the only person who fights crime. No one except Batman fights crime, not even Superman. Batman only fights crime. Meaning: Fighting crime is the only thing Batman does. He doesn’t work, he doesn’t shower—fighting crime is all he does. Batman fights only crime. Meaning: Batman doesn’t fight anything except crime. He doesn’t fight Alfred or Robin; he doesn’t fight the dry cleaner if they accidentally stain his shirt. Crime is the only thing he fights. Learners who understand syntax comprehend better than the ones who don’t.

• Executive function helps children process information, stay organised and focus on what they’re doing. • Self-control — How we can resist impulses and set goals for ourselves.

Morphology is the study of words and their parts, including stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes

Planning Motivation Reviewing

Language Comprehension is a significant part of Simple View of Reading and The Reading Rope The ultimate purpose of reading is to extract and construct meaning from all kinds of text (Snow 2002). We need knowledge about language structures and what the words inside the statements mean if we are to understand what we are reading; understanding how words work together in sentences to make and change meaning is crucial for comprehension When teaching language structures concentrate on parts of speech and their functions within a sentence. Looking at the model of skilled reading (above), it is evident there are many facets to language structures, including knowledge of grammar, being able to make inferences, and having knowledge of literacy concepts, such as what reading strategies to use for different types of texts (e.g., poems versus informational texts).

Executive function and self-regulation skills provide critical supports for learning and development, and while children aren’t born with these skills, they are born with the potential to develop them through quality interactions and practice

reading Rope

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P14

• Executive function doesn’t exist in a bubble. It goes hand in hand with self-regulation, which helps children feel up to the task of staying organised and getting things done.

Editing and revising are different, editing is fine; revision is critical.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Plan and select the content and think about the strategies, processes, and skills you want to put into practice with your students to achieve the objectives you've set.

Set learning objectives or outcomes. What new skills or abilities will students have when they finish this unit?

ENG 0-12a / LIT 0-13a / LIT 0-21a I explore sounds, letters and words, discovering how they work together, and I can use what I learn to help me as I read and write ENG 1-12a I can use my knowledge of sight vocabulary, phonics, context clues, punctuation and grammar to read with understanding and expression ENG 2-12a / ENG 3-12a / ENG 4-12a Through developing my knowledge of context clues, punctuation, grammar and layout, I can read unfamiliar texts with increasing fluency, understanding and expression LIT 1-14a Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select, sort and use information for a specific purpose LIT 2-14a Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select and sort information from a variety of sources and use this for different purposes LIT 3-14a / LIT 4-14a Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select, sort, summarise, link and use information from different sources LIT 0-07a / LIT 0-16a / ENG 0-17a To help me understand stories and other texts, I ask questions and link what I am learning with what I already know ENG 1-17a To show my understanding, I can respond to different kinds of questions and other close reading tasks and I am learning to create some questions of my own ENG 2-17a To show my understanding, I can respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other close reading tasks and can create different kinds of questions of my own ENG 3-17a To show my understanding, I can comment, with evidence, on the content and form of short and extended texts, and respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other types of close reading tasks ENG 4-17a To show my understanding, I can give detailed, evaluative comments, with evidence, on the content and form of short and extended texts, and respond to different kinds of questions and other types of close reading tasks

Excutive Function

Effective Reading InstRuction

reading Rope

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Professional learning

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Why executive functioning matters

The Challenge of Editing Writing

Motivation

'Closing the Reading Gap' Quigley

Attentions should be paid to cultural/social captials and

What ‘funds of knowledge’ do the children bring to the classroom with them? This should be seen from an asset model and not a deficit. This is prior knowledge

Challenge is key to motivation

Learners need the right level of cognitive load to maintain motivation

The process of moving working memory to long term memory. If there is too much cognitive load this conversion will not take place.

Give autonomy, where possible, of what is read

personal and social identity. 3 domains

Be explicit about the different goals of reading

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Use texts that link to students’ interests

Increase opportunities for collaborative reading where students can read together

spotlights

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Supports

Work in partnership with children, families and colleagues to explore, understand and identify interests, strengths and barriers

Strengthen the learners' identity as a reader, valuing their motivation and wider experience

P46

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Motivation

Professional learning

Sue Ellis - 3 Domains

What makes great teaching?

Higher order thinking skills to improve reading and writing

Cognitive load, the need to be aware of prior knowledge and background knowledge

Supporting struggling readers in secondary schools

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Chapter 2

Reflective Reading - Anne Glennie

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P48

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Reflective Reading Anne Glennie

Executive EArly Years

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P11

  • Engageme learners in meaningful social interactions and enjoyable activities that draw on self-regulatory skills at increasingly demanding levels.
  • practice reflecting on their experiences, talking about what they are doing and why, monitoring their actions, considering possible next steps, and evaluating the effectiveness of their decisions.
  • Scaffolding the development of these skills, first by helping children complete challenging tasks, and then by gradually stepping back to let children manage the process independently—and learn from their mistakes—as they are ready and able to do so.
  • Imaginary play - During intentional imaginary play, children develop rules to guide their actions in playing roles. They also hold complex ideas in mind and shape their actions to follow these rules, inhibiting impulses or actions that don’t fit the “role.”
  • • Storytelling - Children love to tell stories. Their early stories tend to be a series of events, each one related to the one before, but lacking any larger structure. With practice, children develop more complex and organized plots. As the complexity of the storytelling grows, children practice holding and manipulating information in working memory.
  • • Movement challenges - songs and games. The demands of songs and movement games support executive function because children have to move to a specific rhythm and synchronize words to actions and the music. All of these tasks contribute to inhibitory control and working memory. It is important that these songs and games become increasingly complex to interest and challenge children.

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Executive Function First to second Level

Effective writing InstRuction

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reading Rope

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P11

  • Dialogic approaches offer opportunties to explore complex text structure

  • Teach the multiple demands of writing seperately
  • Use dialogic approaches: shared practice and guided practice until the gradual removal of scaffolding for independent writing
  • Using planning tools to structure the writing process

  • Give time to revise and edit writing

  • Focus on motivation
  • Build writing pieces at a manageable pace for each learner

  • Teach metacognition skills

Transcription SEcondary BGE & SEnior Phase

Effective writing InstRuction

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Working Memory

Es &Os

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Working memory and short-term memory - although linked – are not the same.

  • Short-term memory is the short-term storage of information – for example, memorising a phone number.

Working memory is used when a learner needs to think and remember at the same time.

Working memory refers to a cognitive system with the capacity to hold temporary information and manipulate stored information.

reading Rope

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P16

The working memory can be overloaded when trying to interact with the multiple demands included in the writing process.

High levels of stress on working memory can make it difficult to concentrate and organise thoughts, leading to a lack of written work or ideas.

To avoid an overload of working memory, the writing process should be broken up into multiple parts which are manageable for students.

Organize the plan around a topic or concept that you want to teach in a specific timeframe (usually short). It needs to make sense on its own and have the aim of helping students acquire the knowledge.

Plan and select the content and think about the strategies, processes, and skills you want to put into practice with your students to achieve the objectives you've set.

Divide your plan into stages or steps. We're suggesting the most common ones but you can expand on them and/or change their names.

Set learning objectives or outcomes. What new skills or abilities will students have when they finish this unit?

LIT 1-18a To help me develop an informed view, I can recognise the difference between fact and opinion. LIT 2-18a To help me develop an informed view, I can identify and explain the difference between fact and opinion, recognise when I am being influenced, and have assessed how useful and believable my sources are LIT 3-18a To help me develop an informed view, I am exploring the techniques used to influence my opinion. I can recognise persuasion and assess the reliability of information and credibility and value of my sources LIT 4-18a To help me develop an informed view, I can recognise persuasion and bias, identify some of the techniques used to influence my opinion, and assess the reliability of information and credibility and value of my sources LIT 0-07a / LIT 0-16a / ENG 0-17a To help me understand stories and other texts, I ask questions and link what I am learning with what I already know LIT 1-16a To show my understanding across different areas of learning, I can identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text LIT 2-16a To show my understanding across different areas of learning, I can identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text and use supporting details LIT 3-16a To show my understanding across different areas of learning, I can: • identify and consider the purpose, main concerns or concepts and use supporting detail • make inferences from key statements • identify and discuss similarities and differences between different types of text LIT 4-16a To show my understanding across different areas of learning, I can: • clearly state the purpose, main concerns, concepts or arguments and use supporting detail • make inferences from key statements and state these accurately in my own words • compare and contrast different types of text.

Working Memory

Effective Reading InstRuction

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Professional learning

reading Rope

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P17

How to optimise working memory

The Simple View of Writing

The Writing Revolution

  • Teach the multiple demands of writing seperately
  • Use dialogic approaches: shared practice and guided practice until the gradual removal of scaffolding for independent writing
  • Using planning tools

  • Give time to edit and review writing

  • Focus on motivation
  • Build writing pieces at a manageable pace for each learner

WRiting for learning

Background knowledge and

hold

Reader should be exposed to a variety of texts and genre. It is important that they engage with the right level of text for the correct purpose.

CMO training

Themes

Literal comprehension occurs at the surface level when a reader acknowledges what they can see and hear. The details are stated and clear for anyone to identify. Literal comprehension is often referred to as ‘on the page’ or ‘right there’ comprehension. This is the simplest form of comprehension. Inferential comprehension requires the reader to draw on their prior knowledge of a topic and identify relevant evidence from the text (words, images, sounds) to make an inference. Inferential comprehension is often referred to as ‘between the lines’ or ‘think and search’ comprehension. This level of comprehension requires more skill but can be achieved by young children. Evaluative comprehension is a level of reading comprehension that requires the reader to move beyond the text and consider their own opinions and beliefs in relation to the message in the text. Evaluative comprehension requires readers to analyse and critically interpret the text based on their prior knowledge and experiences.

Teach through the curriculum

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Reading to learn is where we focus on reading for information and understanding

  • Disciplainry writing

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One of the most effective teaching strategies to promote metacognition in reading is “thinking aloud” whereby the teacher makes explicit what they do implicitly. By following this process learners can eventually, independently plan their approach to reading, monitor how they are getting on and evaluate what will help them next time. Planning: (before reading skills) Have I read anything like this before and what did I do to be successful? How did I learn to read something like this before? What strategies might help me? Monitoring: (during reading skills) Am I doing well? Do I need any different techniques to improve my reading? e.g. using punctuation more effectively Do I understand what I have read? Is there anything I need to stop and change to improve my approach such as re-reading the paragraph or reading it aloud? Evaluation: (after reading skills) How did I do? What helped me understand the text? What will I do again next time? Are there other strategies I would like to try?

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vocabulary

Es &Os

P26

LIT 2-13a , 2-16a, 2-07a, 2-09a, 2-14a, 2-15a I can select and use a range of strategies and resources before I read, and as I read, to make meaning clear and give reasons for my selection.   Through developing my knowledge of context clues, punctuation, grammar and layout, I can read unfamiliar texts with increasing fluency, understanding and expression To show my understanding across different areas of learning, I can identify and consider the purpose and main ideas of a text and use supporting detail. To show my understanding, I can respond to literal, inferential and evaluative questions and other close reading tasks and can create different kinds of questions of my own. I can show my understanding of what I listen to or watch by responding to literal, inferential, evaluative and other types of questions, and by asking different kinds of questions of my own. When listening and talking with others for different purposes, I can: • share information, experiences and opinions • explain processes and ideas • identify issues raised and summarise main points or findings • clarify points by asking questions or by asking others to say more. Using what I know about the features of different types of texts, I can find, select, sort and use information for a specific purpose. I am learning to make notes under given headings and use them to understand information, explore ideas and problems and create new texts.

WRiting for learning

Effective Reading InstRuction

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Professional learning

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SPotlight on ...

Play pedagogy

English as an additional language

Dyslexia

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Assessment

Equity

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Reading into writing

Support staff

Supporting Writing

Editing vs Reviewing

Family learning

Key messages for assesssing, tracking and providing support

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spotlights

Assessment and tracking information should inform learning over the short and long term and lead to next stepsLearner participation to identify strengths and next steps through effective feedback is key (Examples)Assessment of writing must have a purpose and this should be determined at the planning stage

"Keep up" rather than "catch-up" is the strongest intervention

The best support for struggling readers is preventative rather than intervention. Early reading instruction, phonics in particular, should contain systematic support for those that struggle, which helps before they fall behind. Gaps in phonological awareness should be addressed, where possible, alongside the introduction of phonics. Even high quality reading instruction may still not allow all learners to read at a pace that allows them to ‘keep up’ with the rest of the class. In this case, reading intensive intervention may be necessary.

Sometimes additional support is needed. This support can be at different levels

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Scaffolding assessment allows all learners to demonstate their learning

Primary 4 example: Primary 1 example

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Examples of Teacher and pupil Trackers

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REturn to Key messages

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Pupil Friendly Tracker

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How can we assess reading?

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Summative Assessments

Formative Assessment

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High Quality Assessments

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Formative assessment provides ongoing feedback that leads to next steps. “The most powerful educational tool for raising attainment and preparing children to be lifelong learners, in any context, is formative assessment.” (Outstanding Formative Assessment, Shirley Clarke) Carefully planned formative assessments provide opportunities for teachers to assess all elements of reading continually and regularly. This continuous feedback supports learners to understand what their next steps are and how to achieve them. https://www.edutopia.org/article/7-smart-fast-ways-do-format

Summative assessment is an administered assessment. Summative assessments should be used appropriately to monitor progress in reading and as a diagnostic tool to inform teaching and learning. Summative assessments undertaken should include phonics assessments, fluency assessments (WCPM & Prosody) and reading comprehension assessments. Effective summative assessments provide students a structured way to demonstrate that they have met a range of key learning objectives and to receive useful feedback on their overall learning. These assessments should be completed at certain points throughout the year. Scaffolding assessments allows all learners to demonstrate their progress. Some standardised assessments are not responsive to the learner's answers. If the teacher is aware that they will not be successful and this assessment may impact on their confidence then the assessment should not go ahead. Some standardised assessments may not match the Es&Os/benchmarks at the CfE level. Careful consideration needs to be taken when choosing what you wish to assess and the best summative assessment you can use.

Carefully planned high quality teaching and learning experiences provide opportunities for teachers to assess different outcomes for reading collectively. High quality assessments should be planned for and give learners an opportunity to show they can apply their learning. Observations of play are also good examples of high quality assessment.

Summative Assessments

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Careful consideration of the purpose, time required for implementation, cost and staff development before deciding to administer any summative assessments. Does it add to what the teacher already knows? How will results be used to support learning?

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P34

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What should we assess/track - Fluency?

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P35

Evidenceapplication Across the curriculumKnow the gaps to adress them

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Levels of Support

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Identifying the problem & solution

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P37

Text level should be monitored to ensure it offers the right level of challenge at all times when learning how to read

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spotlights

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Readers should be exposed to a variety of texts and genre. It is important that they engage with the right level of text for the correct purpose. Developing fluency and comprehension skills require different levels of text.

SUPPOrts

spotlights

REturn to Key messages

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steps to support FLuency - Word Recognition

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steps to support FLuency - Word Recognition

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P38

Needs updated

SUPPOrts

spotlights

REturn to Key messages

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steps to support FLuency - Word Recognition

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P38

Needs updated

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SUPPOrts

spotlights

REturn to Key messages

steps to support FLuency - language comprehension

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P39

Needs updated

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SUPPOrts

spotlights

REturn to Key messages

steps of support -reading Comprehension

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P40

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Play PedAgogy & WRiting

"A balance of responsive planning and intentional planning is essential in providing suitable experiences that connect with and extend children’s interests and motivations."Realising the Ambition

Adult Directed (intentional) Teaching of reading:

Provocation or experience that the adult initiates but is open ended in nature to allow the child to lead - takes the learning in a direction that suits their interest or need.

Child is intrinsically motivated, actively making choices, engaging in repetition and cycles of actions and interactionsor applying what they have learned in new situations.

Child Led (responsive)

Adult Initiated (intentional)

The balance between intentional and responsive depends on the needs of the child and what is happening within the setting. There is no set time in relation to this balance but in having an understanding of the importance and impact of each, helps practitioners to understand the need for both intentional and responsive experiences.

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SPrts

spotlights

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Supports

P41

Reading is not a natural aptitude and must be explicitly taught

Needs updated

CMO training

CMO training

Play pedagogy and play

Professional learning

Inverclyde's play padlet

Education Scotland play-pedagogy-toolkit

Cawdor primary discussing balance

Top tips for supporting reading at home early to secondary

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spotlights

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Developing early phonological awareness and literacy skills

part 1

part 2

Early years network

P42

Needs updated

Equity

High quality learning and teaching has the greatest impact on disadvantaged learners

Literacy, including reading, is the magic key to all subject areas. Fluent reading needs to be a relentless focus.

spotlights

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Supports

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P43

Equity

Professional learning

The attainment gap? What about the teaching gap? Anne Glennie

What makes great teaching?

spotlights

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P44

Family learning

If families value reading then children are more likely to read. Families should be encouraged to provide space and time to read with their child

Families who enjoy reading together have more opportunities for discussion, developing empathy and attachment

Only 45% of 2 year old children are read to every day

Children who are read to regularly have opportunities to build vocabulary and

Not all parents are able to read and some find it difficult to support their child

spotlights

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Supports

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background knowledge

P45

Needs updated

Family learning

Professional learning

Pizza Reading

  • Top tips for supporting reading at home early to secondary series

Reading to children

How to use a book - tips for parents

spotlights

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Using film at home to support reading

Strategic framework for parental involvement

Bitesize Top Tips

Chapter 6

Reflective Reading Anne Glennie

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P46

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Reflective Reading Anne Glennie

Dyslexia

spotlights

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Dyslexia is not an illnessDyslexia is a lifelong, neurodevelopmental condition affecting someone’s ability in reading, writing and/or spelling Dyslexia does not reflect an individual’s cognitive ability and may not be typical of performance in other areasDyslexia exists in all cultures, abilities and socio-economic backgrounds Support to remove barriers caused by Dyslexia are vital if we are to get it right for every child

The Inverclyde Overview should be used for the identification and support of literacy difficulties and dyslexia

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P49

Needs updated

DYSlexia

Professional learning

Literacy Circles

spotlights

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Supports

CMO training

Chapter 17

The Art and Science of Teaching Reading Christopher Such

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Education Scotland – Dyslexia and Inclusive Practice Dyslexia and Inclusive practice

Dyslexia Scotland - Empowering people with dyslexia to reach their full potential

Addressing Dyslexia Toolkit

Support for Young People

Support for Parents

Support for Educators

Parental support - Education Scotland Parentzone Site

P50

Needs updated

The Art and Science of Teaching Reading Christopher Such

English as an additional language

Bilingualism and multilingualism are an asset. Home learning experiences should be valued and supported

Bilingual learners are individuals who function in more than one language in their daily lives. The term ‘bilingual’ emphasises that learners already have one language and that English is a second or additional language. The term does not imply an equal or specified level of fluency in two or more languages. Multilingual learners are individuals who function in multiple languages in their daily lives. The term 'multilingual’ emphasises that learners already have more than one language and that English is a second or additional language. The term does not imply an equal or specified level of fluency in two or more languages.

Many EAL learners are highly literate in one or more languages, but some may not have had the opportunity to learn to read in the language of their home

Learners with EAL have a dual task at school: to learn English (language) and to learn through English

Learners who can read in a language that uses the same alphabet as English will find it easier to learn to decode In English

Reading involves both decoding and reading for meaning

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Supporting reading for meaning

The ability to use more than one language is a valuable skill that learners who use EAL bring with them, regardless of whether they are new to English or not. Learners actively use the languages they already know to learn English.

Some may not have had the opportunity to learn to read in the language of their home. In some cultures, reading is seen as a specialist skill, not one that every individual can and should acquire. In others it is the skill of decoding that is particularly admired, and understanding what you are reading is seen as less important.

Those who can read another script may find this more difficult, but both groups bring with them an understanding that print carries meaning.

For EAL learners decoding should not be an end in itself, and practising reading ‘nonsense words’ because EAL learners cannot be expected to know whether or not these words have meaning in English. A focus on reading for meaning is crucial and should be supported by visuals (pictures, diagrams, mime etc.) as much as possible.

such as vap or ulf is unhelpful

spotlights

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Supports

P51

Do we need this? Once they can speak and read?

English as an Additional language

Professional learning

Effective READING Instruction

These comprehension strategies and pedagogies include: • • Providing a literacy rich context

EAL learners will benefit from being provided with additional contextual support to help them make sense of the information conveyed to them in English. The use of images and graphic organisers (e.g. diagrams, grids, charts, and timelines) are very useful for this purpose.

Great ideas for teaching EAL learners

Supports for parents

Learning in 2 + Languages

How good is our school for bilingual learners?

• Making the English language explicit in the classroom • Developing learners independence

Within the context of the curriculum, learners with EAL can be encouraged to notice the language used and understand how it is used. This implies pointing out key forms and structures that allow pupils to meet the language demands of the tasks. Strategies include providing oral and written models and scaffolding speaking and writing through speaking and writing frames.

• Supporting learners with EAL to extend their vocabulary

EAL learners at all levels need to be given opportunities to grow their English vocabulary range. This could be done by taking advantage of their first language(s) through translation, the use of flashcards and images. It is important to remember to develop the learner’s academic language skills, for instance by focusing on the differences between formal and informal vocabulary.

Assessment

Further training

Supporting EAL Students in Mainstream Classrooms

Resources

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Activating prior knowledge

P52

Secondary

The importance of a cohesive transition to secondary cannot be underestimated.

Staff should be working with and learning from each other to ensure a shared understanding of standards and a common methodology to support the transition.

The ability to read fluently at any age is key to accessing the curriculum. Fresh Start can be used to support learners who are still learning to read.

Reading for understanding, analysis and evaluation is assessed as part of SCQF Level 5 and Level 6 qualifications. These skills should be developed throughout primary and secondary.

The key messages around teaching learners to read are the same regardless of the learner's age.

Poetry offers opportunities to develop reading skills.

spotlights

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Supports

P53

Needs updated

secondary

Professional learning

Fresh Start

Teaching RUAE

Supporting struggling readers in secondary schools

Active reading skills in secondary school

Supporting learners in secondary school to read like subject experts

5 top tips for supporting reading in secondary schools

When older students can't read

spotlights

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P54

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Support Staff

spotlights

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Supports

Pupil support assistants should not be used as an informal teaching resource for low attaining pupils

More than independent, silent reading.

Use pupil support assistants to add value to what teachers do, not to replace them.

Using pupil support assistants to help pupils develop independent learning skills and manage their own learning

Use pupil support assistants to deliver high quality one-to-one and small group support using structured interventions

Ensure pupil support assistants make connections between learning from everyday classroom teaching and structured interventions

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Ensure pupil support assistants are fully prepared for their role in the classroom

P55

Support Staff

Professional learning

Effective use of Teaching Assistants EEF

CMO training

Support staff approaches and interventions

spotlights

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Glasgow's 3 Read Approach

Empowering Pupil Support Assistants in our classrooms

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P56

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Content Team

Siobhan CurrieLynn McGachyMichelle O'NeillAmy CampbellJennifer McGachyMartin CraigGill SullivanVicky BonnarElyse BuchananRoslynn Oliver

Eric LindsayTelmo GomesClaire CogginsDonna BuirdsGemma McCallumPamela BradleyPaula McParlaneMark CoyleLiz SommervilleJulie DochertyColette Kavanagh

With thanks to Education Scotland Literacy Team for their contribution and feedback. Also thanks go to South Ayrshire and Glasgow for being a critical friend.

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Index - Click on page to take you strAight to the page

Page 2 Introduction

Page 3 The Framework

Page 9 Scarborough's Reading Rope

Page 4 Self-evaluation tool

Page 5 Reading Key Messages

Page 6 Reading Cogs

Page 7 Learning to Read (Fluency)

Page 10 Background knowledge

Page 12 Vocabulary

Page 14 Language Structure

Page 16 Verbal Reasoning

Page 18 Literacy Knowledge

Page 20 Phonological Awareness

Page 22 Decoding

Page 24 Sight Recognition

Page 26 Reading to Learn

Page 28 Reading for Pleasure

Page 30 Spotlight on! Map

Feedback

Page 31 Assessing tracking and support key messages

Page 32 Tracking Progress

Page 33 How can we assess?

Page 34 Summative Assessments

Page 35 What should we assess/ track

Page 36 2 Levels of Support

Page 37 Identifying the Problem

Page 38 2 support steps - word recognition

Page 39 2 support steps - language comprehension

Page 41 Play Pedagogy and Reading

Page 43 Equity

Page 45 Family Learning

Page 51 English as an Additional Language (EAL)

Page 49 Dyslexia

Page 47 Motivation

Page 53 Secondary

Page 55 Support Staff

Page 40 2 support steps - Reading comprehension

Page 56 Content Team

Working memory is used when a learner needs to think and remember at the same time.A person’s working memory coordinates and handles the writing process at the moment of writing but, as we know, the working memory has a finite capacity and can easily become overwhelmed.If, for example, a child is struggling with holding their pen and letter formation, then they will not have the capacity to compose great poetry. Equally, if a child is engaged in generating ideas for a story, they may not have the capacity to organise these ideas in a plan at the same time.https://researchschool.org.uk/news/the-simple-view-of-writing-music-to-our-ears

Working memory is used when a learner needs to think and remember at the same time.A person’s working memory coordinates and handles the writing process at the moment of writing but, as we know, the working memory has a finite capacity and can easily become overwhelmed.If, for example, a child is struggling with holding their pen and letter formation, then they will not have the capacity to compose great poetry. Equally, if a child is engaged in generating ideas for a story, they may not have the capacity to organise these ideas in a plan at the same time.https://researchschool.org.uk/news/the-simple-view-of-writing-music-to-our-ears

Prior knowledge is what learners bring to the learning experience. This can include their experiences of life, culture and what they have also learned. Background knowledge is what the teacher provides or the reader has already learned to support the child with gaps in their prior knowledge.

Reading: The shift from learning to read and reading to learn isn’t always linear, when leaners encounter new or challenging texts they will need to draw upon the learning to read skills.

* Adapted from Highland Literacy Resource

As an EYECO, I spend a lot of time developing talking and listening skills that support learning to read skills. I still spend time on reading to learn as we discuss stories and other texts.

As a P4 teacher, I still spend a lot of time teaching learning to read skills. I spend about the same amount of time building reading to learn skills as we develop our comprehension.

As a geography teacher I spend a lot of time supporting pupils to effectively use reading to learn skills. I also still need to use learning to read skills for example when introducing specialised vocabulary or challenging texts. I also support individual learners who are still developing their reading to learn skills by providing support and scaffolding.

It is the 'responsiblity of all' to develop literacy skills.

Working memory is used when a learner needs to think and remember at the same time.A person’s working memory coordinates and handles the writing process at the moment of writing but, as we know, the working memory has a finite capacity and can easily become overwhelmed.If, for example, a child is struggling with holding their pen and letter formation, then they will not have the capacity to compose great poetry. Equally, if a child is engaged in generating ideas for a story, they may not have the capacity to organise these ideas in a plan at the same time.https://researchschool.org.uk/news/the-simple-view-of-writing-music-to-our-ears

Put Reading First Nih.gov

Some levels of stress are normal and healthy. However, stress can also have a negative impact on a student’s ability to write.Stress factors can manifest in many forms. These can be:

  • language and learning disabilities
  • a lack of knowledge of the English language or subject area
  • negative living conditions and home pressures
When students experience high levels of stress, their ability to use their working memory to meet the multiple demands of the writing process is impacted.

Reciprocal teaching is a scaffolded discussion technique that incorporates four main strategies that good readers use together to comprehend text: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarising.

Dyslexia can be described as a continuum of difficulties in learning to read, write and/or spell, which persist despite the provision of appropriate learning opportunities.

This framework is a self-evaluation tool for practioners to evaluate their knowledge, then develop their understanding of how to effectively teach reading (please note reading builds on talking and listening and leads to writing skills). As the full framework is developed, the links across the organisers will be explictly identified. Practitioners should use the self-evaluation tool to identify areas they may wish to develop.They can then use the framework to build or secure their understanding. Throughout the framework readers are directed to:

  • Key Messages - extracted from current research
  • Professional Learning - reading, research, videos or CMO sessions
  • Effective Reading Instruction - examples of practice that research has indicated may be effective (these are not exhaustive lists)
Technical language has been used intentionally throughout the framework. Any words indicated in blue can be opened to reveal what the language means.Anything that flashes will either direct you to another page or open an information window. Spotlights include more detailed guidance for the areas: Equity - Assessment - Motivation - Play Pedagogy - Support Staff - English as an Additional Language - Family Learning -Dyslexia

Do all your children feel the same way about reading? What do their peers think of them? Do they all have a good image of themselves as readers?Are they equally adventurous?

Editing is fixing basic errors like capitalization, punctuation and spelling. Revising is the task of improving writing-specifically by revising structure or word choice. Generally for writing instruction to be effective we have to make a habit of constantly looking at and re-working what students write. But as Hochman pointed out, Revising is much more rigorous. It’s where the work really happens- where an idea is framed, distilled to its core elements, and brought to life. Editing is fine; revision is critical. Which is important to observe because 1) many (most?) teachers don’t distinguish between the two and 2) if you let students choose–that is if you put a block of text in front of them and say something like “What suggestions do you have to improve it?”–they will generally choose to edit rather than revise, primarily because it is easier to add a missing capital letter than to rework a sentence to use a subordinating conjunction and make your verb more precise and active, say. In fact many teachers, too, will choose editing over revising- for exactly the same reason. We’re drawn to the low hanging fruit, so when we look at text in the classroom there can be a “rigor gap” if we’re not careful to revise more than edit.

Working memory is used when a learner needs to think and remember at the same time.A person’s working memory coordinates and handles the writing process at the moment of writing but, as we know, the working memory has a finite capacity and can easily become overwhelmed.If, for example, a child is struggling with holding their pen and letter formation, then they will not have the capacity to compose great poetry. Equally, if a child is engaged in generating ideas for a story, they may not have the capacity to organise these ideas in a plan at the same time.https://researchschool.org.uk/news/the-simple-view-of-writing-music-to-our-ears

When an initial concern is expressed, the pathway should be followed to ensure support is timely and appropriate.

https://glowscotland.sharepoint.com/:f:/r/sites/CMOTrainingTeam/Shared%20Documents/Literacy/Literacy%20Framework/Dyslexia%20support%20materials?csf=1&web=1&e=ZyFET6