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Transcript

Learning Theories Part 1

Elizabeth Salicrup College of Education, Grand Canyon University EDU 522: Curriculum Design Theories Dr. Olivia JonesOctober 11, 2023

(Graphix, 2023)

Behaviorism

Behaviorist theory "emphasizes conditioning behavior and altering the environment to elicit selected responses from the learner” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

  • Major Theorists

  • The Role of Memory

The influence on memory plays a significant role in behaviorism, through operant conditioning. The term operant conditioning is defined as "the role of stimuli is less definite, the behavior cannot be connected to specific stimulus" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Thus the premise is that if a person reinforces behavior repeatedly and consistently then punishing the behavior will lessen. The human memory is always responding to various stimuli and this is linked to the neural connections of behavior responses.

  • Characteristics of The Theory

The premise of this theory is that behavior is learned through the environment around us (Mcleod, 2023). The defining characteristic can be broken down into "classical conditioning, learning by association or operant conditioning, and learning by consequences" (Mcleod, 2023). The environments that surround an individual are linked to influencing behavior through innate or inherited factors. (Mcleod, 2023).

  • How Learning Occurs

Learning can occur through rewards, and discipline.

  • The Types of Learning

There are seven types of learning that can occur in behaviorism. Signal learning Stimulus-response Verbal association Multiple discriminations Concepts Rules Problem-solving (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017)

Cognitivism

Behaviorist theory "emphasizes conditioning behavior and altering the environment to elicit selected responses from the learner” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

  • Major Theorists

  • The Role of Memory

Cognitive psychologists essentially are interested in the mind’s architecture. They believe there are two types of memory: short-term and long-term. Some educators have divided short-term memory into immediate memory and working memory

  • Characteristics of The Theory

The principles of cognitive theory are that theories are looking into the "nature of learning, specifically how individuals generate structures of knowledge and how they create or learn reasoning and problem-solving strategies" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). In addition, learning must be purposeful and self-directed, student need to build schemas to organize information and expand learning into long-term memory (Main, 2022).

  • How Learning Occurs

Learning occurs when students are able to expand and maximize their learning potential through their mental abilities. The influence of cognitive strategies allows for students in educational settings to make connections to new learning and, thus the ability to retain and store memory (Main, 2022).

  • The Types of Learning

Constructivism

Behaviorist theory "emphasizes conditioning behavior and altering the environment to elicit selected responses from the learner” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

  • Major Theorists

  • The Role of Memory

It is stated that "learning is optimized when students are aware of the processes that they are structuring, inventing, and employing" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Thus the usage of metacognition in the awareness of cognitive processes is imperative and the structure is used in terms of memory to obtain and use the knowledge that is gathered (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

  • Characteristics of The Theory

  • How Learning Occurs

In constructivism theory learning occurs through the interactions with the world around us to gather and construct knowledge or meaning (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Rather than passively allowing information to filter through.

  • The Types of Learning

(Venngage, n.d.)

(Chad, 2014)

(Pappas, 2021)

(B. F. Skinner, n.d.)

B. Frederic Skinner (1904-1990)

John B. Watson (1878-1958)

Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)

B. Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) Skinner is known for applying his theory of behaviorism to the classroom (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). He refined concepts within the theory of behaviorism and was able to discover two types of responses, "elicited and operant" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Many contributions were based on his experiments in the lab with mice and pigeons to refine behavior (B. F. Skinner, n.d.).

John B. Watson (1878-1958) (A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries: John Watson, n.d.) Watson used the foundation of theories in Pavlov’s research to start the foundation of a new science within the context of psychology, based on the behaviorism theory. Watson's new idea in science expressed that learning was based on the science of behaviorism, through observation or measurable means, and not cognitive processes (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

Edward Thorndike (1874-1949) One of the first Americans to experimentally test the learning process (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). He is considered the founder of behavioral psychology (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Thorndike started experimenting in college with animals, and his focus shifted to testing the relationship between stimulus and response (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Thorndike’s theories made a lasting impression in the behaviorist theory community.

Behaviorism

Behaviorist theory "emphasizes conditioning behavior and altering the environment to elicit selected responses from the learner” (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

Cognitivism

Cognitivism theory invests its interests in creating theories that allow insight into "the nature of learning, specifically how individuals generate structures of knowledge and how they create or learn reasoning and problem-solving strategies" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

Constructivism

Constructivism theory examines the nature of knowledge and learning. Constructivism leads the "individual as actively involved in the process of thinking and learning" (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Theorists are curious about how individuals engage in the cognitive process.

(Dincer & Dincer, 2021)

(Harry, 2022)

(Writer, 2022)

Learning Theories

(Screens, 2018)

For contrustivist theory the major theoriest that were involved are Jean Piaget and John Dewey. Dewey empahaized how people when people interact with the world around them they can learn and grow (Screens, 2018)

(Drew, 2023)

Learning occurs through our expirences. When in a learning enviroemtn it is best to learn through interactions and doing rather than direct or explicit learning.

The major theoriest in cognitivism theory is first Maria Montessori (1870–1952) (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Montessori was a briligent pedagogist of the 20th century, she was the director in the Psychiatric Clinic at the University of Rome (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Next is Jean Piaget (1896–1980) a Swiss psychologist who developed one of the've most comprehensive theory to date of cognitive development stages. Piaget theories and research on cognitivism influenced cognitive ideas in the educational setting (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017). Another theories is Lev Vygotsky who developed his theories in the 20th century, that act as a guide of cognitive development and learning is influenced by social interactions (Ornstein & Hunkins, 2017).

Maria Montessori(Venngage, n.d.)