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“All of Egypt's past presidents - Naguib, Nasser, Sadat and Mubarak - were former military officers, and they relied on this military legacy to bolster their legitimacy” (Kurtzer and Svenstrup 43)

Egypt's long history of military rule

"Down Down with military rule"

“criminalization of public dissent in the name of national security and counterterrorism” (BrechenMacher)

The Catch...

Therefore the result of a repressive regime, particularly on civil society and any dissent, as well as the tight grip of the military on politics and the economy has negatively impacted the political system of Egypt in terms of causing it to entrench the military’s authority consequently straying further from democracy, pushing down on civil society as well as hindering economic development

Graffiti Art

Graphical representation


“robustness of the coercive apparatus is directly linked to maintenance of fiscal health” then “the security establishment is most likely to give up when its financial foundation is seriously compromised”


“transition can be carried out successfully only when the state's coercive apparatus lacks the will or capacity to crush it” (Bellin)


Rents recieved from foreign aid and geostrategic locations


The big pitcutre


the way leaders use rents to buy the military’s loyalty and therefore resulting in a robust coercive apparatus

Use of Rents

the military’s economic involvement, and the almost equivalence of having the power ‘of the purse’ in Egypt

military’s economic involvement

Stringent laws, prosecution, and targeting of civil society

Stringent Laws





Aboulenein, A. (2016, October 18). How Egypt’s crackdown on dissent ensnared the country’s top judges. Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/investigates/special-report/egypt-judges/Bellin, E. (2004). The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective. Comparative Politics, 36(2), 139–157. https://doi.org/10.2307/4150140BRECHENMACHER, S. (2017). SURVEILLANCE AND STATE CONTROL IN ETHIOPIA. In CIVIL SOCIETY UNDER ASSAULT: Repression and Responses in Russia, Egypt, and Ethiopia (pp. 65–90). Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. http://www.jstor.org/stable/resrep26904.9Kurtzer, D., & Svenstrup, M. (2012). Egypt’s Entrenched Military. The National Interest, 121, 40–50. http://www.jstor.org/stable/42896548Marshall, S. (2012). The New Politics of Patronage: The Arms Trade and Clientelism in the Arab World.Sayigh, Y., 2019. Egypt’s Military Now Controls Much of Its Economy. Is This Wise?. United States of America. Retrieved from https://policycommons.net/artifacts/433410/egypts-military-now-controls-much-of-its-economy/1404492/ on 13 Sep 2023. CID: 20.500.12592/02xjt8.Sowers, J. (2007). Why Is Democracy Elusive in the Middle East?

The enduring consolidation of power within the autocratic military in Egypt has further entrenched their authoritarian rule and perpetuated undemocratic practices within the country.

Foreign assistance from other nations has fortified Egypt’s deeply ingrained tyrannical rule and non-democratic conduct.

Egypt’s rentier mentality has become a barrier to achieving democracy.