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Who are the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council? This Council consists of the Namgis, Kwicksutaineuk, Tsawataineuk, and Gwawaenuk First Nations. (admin. (2011, April 2). MTTC. Mttc.ca. https://www.mttc.ca/) ‌

On June 21st of 2000, five war canoes and fishing boats docked at the Broughton Archipelago, led by the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council. This was done in protest to the multitude of salmon fish farms that were being developed on protected lands, a declaration of sovereignty against the trespassing activity on their territories. The Broughton Archipelago on the west coast of Canada was previously protected territories, however now held 26 salmon farms; an action that lead Yvon Gesinghaus of the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council to proclaim “They can take their friggin’ fish farms and put them somewhere else.” (First Nations Want Fish Out, 2023).

Salmon fishing was established in British Columbia in 1972 with the introduction of farming-pens in areas with tidal flow (coast lines, estuaries, and small bays). In 1989 a large wind storm resulted in 100,000 Atlantic salmon being released due to destruction of the pens. That same year, algal blooms lead to the toxic water conditions and death of fish still in secured pens. Salmon farms provide a risk to the environment and people within due to the pollution secreting from the pens, the introduction of exotic Atlantic salmon into new ecosystems, and artificial additives to salmon leading to their infection and harm to consumers. (EAO. 1997. Salmon Aquaculture Review: First Nations Perspectives)

Source: Hofmann, T. (2019). Recirculating aquaculture system-based salmon farming. Field Actions Science Reports. The Journal of Field Actions, Special Issue 20, 85–87. http://journals.openedition.org/factsreports/5766 ‌

Coastal First Nations on the West Coast of Canada have been fighting back the intrusion of salmon farming on their lands for years, with their introduction resulting in environmental degradation, health conflicts, and threatening their cultures knowledge and ‘ways of life’. (Salmon Farming in First Nations’ Territories: A Case of Environmental Injus...: McDaniel College Research Starter, 2023) “We have spent 14 years going through all the government processes to file objections to these fish farms in our territories and have yet to receive any response from the ministers in charge,” further elaborated Yvon Gesinhous, who describes the land as their people ‘grocery store’ that are now becoming polluted because “These fish farms… are breaking their own restrictions because they have been left to police themselves.” (First Nations Want Fish Out, 2023)

References Cleansing our waters. (n.d.). Musgamagw Dzawada'enuxw Tribal Council. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://mdtc.ca/cleansing-our-waters This is a primary online source produced directly by the Musgmagw Dzawada’enuwx Nation. Centrally, it is a public statement on the political and cultural stance this First Nation takes on the salmon farms operating in its waters. It is a call to action, as well as a resource for public engagement, including an art gallery and list of organizations/individuals involved in this movement. This is not a news article. Gies, E. (2017, October 13). First nations test the political water with fish farm protests. Hakai Magazine. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://hakaimagazine.com/news/ first-nations-test-political-water-fish-farm-protests/ A news article issued by Hakai Magazine, a publication that covers stories in coastal ecology, describing the 2017 First Nations fisheries occupations and the governmental and corporate politics surrounding the turbulent event. This resource delineates the interactions between indigenous nations, companies, and British Columbian officials, including countless specific examples of policy-making decisions that act as microcosms of the larger movement and its repercussions. Kwakwaka'wakw. (n.d.). First Nations Land Rights and Environmentalism in British Columbia. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from http://www.firstnations.eu/fisheries/kwakwakawakw.htm Another First Nations primary source that makes explicit declarations about the Kwakwaka‘wakw stance on the salmon fisheries. This source, in contrast to the first, offers a comprehensive history of the Kwakwaka‘wakw from their own perspective, often contrasting it with colonial narratives offered by anthropologists. This source includes terrain and territory maps, aerial images of the locations being affected, wildlife photos, and indigenous art. It covers a vast array of information ranging from salmon ecology to Canadian policy to detailed timelines of the region’s sociopolitical past. Makes, L. M. (n.d.). Salmon-farming operations face protests, occupations in B.C., legislative scrutiny in Washington state. The Seattle Times. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/environment/salmon-farming-operations-face-protests-occupations-in-b-c-legislative-scrutiny-in-washington-state/ Another news article on the 2017 occupations. This article covers a broader geographical area than many of our other sources, describing the political repercussions of this event in Washington State, for instance, and discussing the role of Marine Harvest, a multinational fisheries company, in this story. Mowi. (2021, February 18). Phillips arm farm [Photograph]. Fish Farming Expert. https://www.fishfarmingexpert.com/british-columbia-canada-discovery-islands/ first-nations-leaders-slam-too-short-farms-closure-consultation/1261677 This article describes the fisheries policy surrounding the Wei Wai Kum and We Wai Kai First Nations, offering a much more recent (2021) update on the ongoing politics of this movement. It covers the murky nature of continuing changes in aquaculture policy. This webpage served as the source for our cover image, an aerial photograph of the soon-to-be-eradicated Phillips Arm salmon farm. Nikiforuk, A. (2018, June 19). Five critical issues to consider before the province renews fish farm licences. The Tyee. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2018/06/19/Critical-Issues-Province-Renews-Fish-Farm-Licenses/ This is another news article, though a somewhat unique one among our sources. After a dense introduction of statistics, timeline events, and quotes from numerous industry and government officials, Nikiforuk elaborates on five relevant issues that must be factored into the 2018 salmon farm decision making process. These include Aboriginal lawsuits against the province, Norway’s precedents on fish farm removal, and the ecological relationship between parasite-infested farm salmon and wild fish. Page, J. (2007, December 21). Salmon farming in first nations' territories: A case of environmental injustice on canada's west coast.https://doi.org/10.1080/13549830701657349 A baseline article that gives introductory and summary information on the effects salmon farming has had on the first nation territories of British Columbia. Provides information about the key players, a brief overview of the salmon farming industry, and issues of correlated environmental justice. This article is being used as a guidemap to other references alongside key players. Multiple references are used within this article allowing for any introductory information to be further read-into and cited. Salmon aquaculture review. (1997, August). https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/environment/ natural-resource-stewardship/environmental-assessments/eao-project-reviews/ salmon-aquaculture-summary-report-volume02.pdf subMedia. (2016, August 26). Fish farm resistance [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snnrea81iFI&t=10s Introduction of the Salmon Aquaculture Review from August 1997 that provides general information about threats on local first nations health and environment due to the introduction of salmon pens. This resource was primarily used to give an overview of the risks resulting from the introduction of salmon rearing pens. These risks are both environmental and physical health related. Statements are given from individuals of first nation perspectives, adding to the personal effects. subMedia. (2016, August 26). Fish farm resistance [Video]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snnrea81iFI&t=10s A 3-minute YouTube video covering a 2016 Vancouver salmon farm occupation. After relaying a few basic statistics about this event, Musgamagw Dzawada'enuwx chief Mike Willie is shown verbally confronting a fisheries official in a semi-candid interaction. Different tribe members are interviewed in brief segments, providing their first-person opinions on the fisheries’ impact. Wiwchar, D. (2000). First Nations want fish out. AMMSA. Retrieved April 17, 2023, from https://ammsa.com/publications/windspeaker/first-nations-want-fish-out A snippet of an article taken from the Windspeaker Publication located on the AMMSA.com that provides information about what occurred at the June 21st 2000 protest by the Musgamagw Tsawataineuk Tribal Council. Giving personal statements from individuals and responses. This provides personal testimonies from those affected alongside how representatives responded, notably quotes from individuals.

This fish farm location, owned by Mowi (formerly Marine Harvest), is among 19 nearby salmon farms that were scheduled to be eradicated by 2022. Nevertheless, dozens of other salmon farms were unaffected by these phase-out efforts.

http://www.firstnations.eu/fisheries/kwakwakawakw.htm Click this link to learn more about the history of the Kwakwaka'wakw in their own words. This is a primary resource published by this indigenous group, whose first-person perspectives must constitute the epicenter of these discussions.

https://thetyee.ca/Analysis/2018/06/19/Critical-Issues-Province-Renews-Fish-Farm-Licenses/ Click here to investigate five relevant issues that must be factored into the 2018 salmon farm decision making process. These include Aboriginal lawsuits against the province, Norway’s precedents on fish farm removal, and the ecological relationship between parasite-infested farm salmon and wild fish. Five Critical Issues to Consider Before the Province Renews Fish Farm Licences | The TyeeAlso in this series: In the wake of increasing controversy, sea lice plagues and aboriginal protests, the province of British Columbia will decide...The Tyee

Tweets by InjusticesF Click this link ^ to see the Twitter profile of Injustices against First Nations Fisheries (@InjusticesF), who are"a group of Indigenous Activist students who want to spread the word about the injustices Indigenous communities face due to B.C.'s fishing industry."

https://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/environment/natural-resource-stewardship/environmental-assessments/eao-project-reviews/salmon-aquacultur Linked here is a volume of the Salmon Aquaculture Review, a comprehensive primary source delineating the policy demands of First Nations in August of 1997.