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Transcript

The life of prophet Muhammad and 'The Message'

630-32 CE: Muhammad (Pbuh) delivers his famous Farewell Sermon and his death

The Farewell Sermon of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a famous speech that he delivered during his final pilgrimage to Mecca in the year 632 CE, just a few months before his death. The sermon is recorded in several hadith collections, including Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. According to Sahih al-Bukhari, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) addressed the people in his farewell sermon, saying: "O People, listen well to my words, for I do not know whether, after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore, listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today." The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) spoke about the importance of following the teachings of Islam, and he emphasized the equality of all Muslims, saying: "All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over a black nor a black has any superiority over white except by piety and good action." The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) also emphasized the importance of treating women with respect and kindness, saying: "Fear Allah regarding women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah." The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) spoke about the importance of social justice and the prohibition of oppression, saying: "Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things. O people, just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust." According to Sahih Muslim, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) also spoke about the importance of leadership in Islam, saying: "All of you are guardians and are responsible for your subjects. The ruler is a guardian of his subjects, the man is a guardian of his family, the woman is a guardian of her husband's house and his children and thus everyone is a guardian and is responsible for his subjects." His Death The Prophet fell seriously ill in the month of Safar in the year 11 AH (632 CE) in Medina. He continued to lead prayers and deliver sermons, but his health gradually deteriorated. One day, he addressed the people of Medina and said, "O people, I feel the approach of death, and I have been given the choice of staying among you and enjoying the pleasures of this life, or of departing and being with my Lord. I have chosen the latter." On the 12th of Rabi' al-Awwal, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) called for his closest companions and family members to come to his house, where he lay on his deathbed. He gave a final farewell speech, reminding the people of the importance of following the teachings of Islam and of treating each other with kindness and compassion. He then prayed for forgiveness and mercy for himself and for the entire ummah (community) of Muslims, and asked that his debts be paid and his bequests fulfilled. The reaction of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to his death was one of deep shock and grief. According to historical accounts, when news of the Prophet's death spread through Medina, many of the companions were overcome with emotion and wept openly. Some even expressed disbelief, refusing to accept that the Prophet was really gone. Despite their grief, however, the companions quickly rallied together to make preparations for the Prophet's burial. They washed his body and prepared it for burial, while others dug his grave and prepared his final resting place. In the days and weeks following the Prophet's death, the companions continued to mourn his loss and struggled to come to terms with their new reality. However, they also remained steadfast in their commitment to Islam and to the teachings of the Prophet.

595 CE: Muhammad marries Khadijah bint Khuwaylid

The marriage of Khadija and Prophet Muhammad was a pivotal event in his life and in the history of Islam. Khadija bint Khuwaylid was a wealthy widow from the Quraysh tribe, and she had gained a reputation as a successful businesswoman, trading in luxury goods with Syria and Yemen. Khadijah bint Khuwaylid was born in Mecca in the year 555 AD. She belonged to a wealthy family and was known for her beauty, intelligence, and business acumen. She was married twice before marrying the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Prophet Muhammad, who was then 25 years old and working as a merchant, had gained a reputation for his honesty, integrity, and trustworthiness, and Khadija became impressed with his character and business acumen. She proposed to him through a friend, and after seeking the advice of his uncle, Abu Talib, he accepted. They were married when Khadijah was 40 and the Prophet was 25. The marriage was a happy one, and Khadija became a supportive partner and confidante to Prophet Muhammad. She bore him several children, including their first son Qasim, who died in infancy, and their daughters Zaynab, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthum, and Fatimah. Khadija's wealth and support also played a key role in the early days of Islam. She provided financial support for Prophet Muhammad's mission, and her connections and influence within the Quraysh tribe helped to protect the early Muslims from persecution. Khadija remained a loyal and devoted wife to Prophet Muhammad until her death in 619 CE. Her support and encouragement had been a source of strength and comfort to him during the difficult early years of his mission, and her memory remained a source of comfort and inspiration to him throughout his life. Hadith Narrated by Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her): "I heard the Prophet (peace be upon him) saying, 'Allah never granted me anyone better in this life than her (Khadijah), she accepted me when people rejected me, she believed in me when people doubted me, she shared her wealth with me when people deprived me, and Allah granted me children only through her.'" [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 3814]

570 CE: Muhammad (Pbuh) is born in Mecca, Arabia.

At the Time of the Birth of Muhammad (Pbuh) Several miraculous events were said to have occurred at the time of Muhammad's birth. One of the most famous stories is that when Muhammad was born, he was said to have prostrated himself in prayer, indicating his prophetic destiny. Another story is that his mother Aminah saw a light emanating from her body that illuminated the palaces of Syria. Additionally, it is said that a Christian monk named Bahira recognized Muhammad's prophetic signs when he was a young boy and predicted his future greatness. Early life of Muhammad (pbuh) Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 CE to the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraysh tribe, which was a respected but not particularly wealthy family. Muhammad's father, Abdullah, died before he was born, and his mother, Aminah, died when he was only six years old. He was subsequently raised by his grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib, and then by his uncle, Abu Talib.

Pre-Islamic Arabia 'Jahiliyah'

Pre-Islamic Arabia was a time of great social and political upheaval, characterized by tribal warfare, economic exploitation, and moral degradation. The people of Arabia were divided into numerous tribes, each with their own customs and traditions, and the region was largely dominated by the superpowers of the time, the Byzantine and Sassanid empires. During this time, the Ka'aba in Mecca, which was originally built by Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Prophet Ismail (Ishmael), had become a center for polytheistic worship, with over 360 idols housed inside. This religious syncretism was also reflected in the diverse beliefs and practices of the various Arabian tribes, with some following Judaism, Christianity, or Zoroastrianism, while others adhered to their own pagan beliefs. The powerful tribes and merchants of Arabia often exploited the weaker tribes and individuals, leading to widespread poverty and inequality. Women were often treated as inferior to men, with little or no rights in society. Female infanticide was also common, with baby girls often being abandoned or killed at birth. The consumption of alcohol and other intoxicants was widespread in Arabia, leading to moral decay and social dysfunction. Education and literacy were virtually non-existent in Arabia, with the majority of the population being illiterate and unaware of the wider world beyond their own tribes.

613-615 CE: Muhammad (Pbuh) begins to preach Islam in Mecca

He faced significant opposition and hostility from the city's leaders and inhabitants. The people of Mecca at that time were predominantly pagan, with many tribes and clans worshiping idols and practicing various forms of polytheism. Islam's message of monotheism and the rejection of idol worship challenged the traditional beliefs and practices of the Meccans, threatening their social and economic status quo. Prophet Muhammad's message also challenged the leadership of the Quraysh tribe, who held significant power and influence in Mecca. They saw the growth of Islam as a threat to their authority and sought to suppress it through various means, including ridicule, persecution, and even physical violence. Despite the opposition, Prophet Muhammad continued to preach the message of Islam, relying on the support of his early followers, who were often from among the marginalized and oppressed members of society. He preached the message of tawhid, or the unity of God, and emphasized the importance of social justice, compassion, and moral integrity. As the number of his followers grew, the Meccan leaders intensified their efforts to suppress Islam, leading to a period of intense persecution and hardship for the early Muslims. Many were subjected to torture, imprisonment, and even death. Some of the most notable early Muslims who faced persecution in Mecca include: 1. Bilal ibn Rabah: A former slave of Ethiopian origin who became one of Prophet Muhammad's closest companions. He was tortured by his former master for his conversion to Islam and was forced to renounce his faith, but he refused and continued to endure the torture. 2. Sumayyah bint Khayyat: One of the earliest converts to Islam, she was the first martyr of Islam. She was killed by her own slave master, who tortured her with a spear after she refused to renounce her faith. 3. Khabbab ibn al-Aratt: A former slave who converted to Islam and was tortured by his former master. He was burned with hot coals on his back while he lay on his stomach. 4. Ammar ibn Yasir: A close companion of Prophet Muhammad who was tortured along with his family. His mother, Sumayyah, was killed, and his father, Yasir, died in captivity. These early Muslims, and many others like them, endured immense hardship and persecution for their faith in Islam. Their sacrifices and dedication to the cause of Islam helped to lay the foundation for the religion's rapid spread and eventual success.

618-619 CE: Muhammad's wife Khadijah and uncle Abu Talib both die

Death of Khadija Khadija, the Prophet's first wife, played a crucial role in supporting and encouraging him during the early years of his prophetic mission. She was a wealthy businesswoman who provided him with financial support, and was also a source of emotional and spiritual support for him. She was the mother of his children and a faithful companion throughout his life. Khadija passed away in the year 619 CE, at the age of 65. Her death was a great loss to Prophet Muhammad, and he mourned her deeply. Her death also marked the end of an era in his life, as he lost not only his wife but also his closest confidant and supporter. Abu Talib Abu Talib, Prophet Muhammad's uncle, was another important figure in his life. Abu Talib had protected him from his enemies in Mecca and provided him with a measure of safety and security. He was a respected member of the Quraysh tribe and had significant influence in Mecca. Abu Talib passed away in the year 619 CE, the same year as Khadija's death. His death was a significant blow to Prophet Muhammad, as he lost not only a family member but also his chief protector in Mecca. After Abu Talib's death, the persecution of the early Muslims in Mecca intensified, and Prophet Muhammad and his followers faced increasing danger and hostility. The deaths of Khadija and Abu Talib were significant events in the life of Prophet Muhammad, marking the end of a period of relative stability and security in his life and the beginning of a period of increased hardship and persecution. Despite these challenges, he continued to preach the message of Islam, and his faith and perseverance eventually led to the establishment of a new faith that would change the course of history.

630 CE: Conquest of Mecca

The conquest of Mecca was a turning point in the early history of Islam. The event marked the end of the conflict between the Muslim community and the pagan tribes of Mecca. In the year 630 CE, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) led an army of around 10,000 Muslims including the prominent companions Abu Bakr and Umar, and marched towards Mecca. The Meccan leaders had anticipated an attack, but they were unprepared for the scale of the Muslim force. The Muslim forces entered Mecca without encountering significant resistance, and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) declared a general amnesty for all the Meccans who surrendered peacefully. He also declared that the idols in the Kaaba, the holy sanctuary of Mecca, should be destroyed. The conquest of Mecca was a significant event in the early history of Islam, as it established the Muslim community as the dominant force in the Arabian Peninsula. It also paved the way for the expansion of Islam beyond the Arabian Peninsula in the following years. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) demonstrated his compassion and mercy towards the people of Mecca by declaring a general amnesty, which helped to establish a peaceful and stable environment for the Muslim community.

629 CE: Conquest the city of Khaybar

The Conquest of Khaybar was a significant military expedition led by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in the year 628 CE. The conquest of Khaybar began when the Jewish tribes of the region refused to submit to Muslim rule and launched raids against Muslim settlements in the area. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) assembled a force of around 1,400 men and marched on Khaybar to confront the enemy. The Muslim forces faced significant resistance from the Jewish defenders, who were well-equipped and had fortified their positions. However, through a combination of military strategy and divine intervention, the Muslims were able to overcome these challenges and ultimately emerged victorious. One of the key factors in the Muslim victory was the role of Ali ibn Abi Talib, a close companion of the Prophet and one of the most skilled warriors of the time. Ali played a critical role in the battle, including leading the charge that broke the Jewish defenses and ultimately secured the Muslim victory. After the conquest of Khaybar, the Muslim forces were able to secure significant spoils of war, including valuable lands, crops, and other resources. These resources were used to support the growing Muslim community and helped to establish Islam as a dominant force in the region.

625 CE: The Battle of Uhud

The Quraysh, seeking revenge for their defeat at Badr, had mustered an army of around 3,000 men, including many of their leading figures. They marched towards Medina with the intention of attacking the Muslims. The Muslim army, numbering around 700 men, had taken up a defensive position on the slopes of the Uhud mountain, just outside of Medina. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had ordered the archers to stay in position on a nearby hill to protect the Muslim flank. Narrated by Jabir bin 'Abdullah: "The Prophet said on the day of Uhud, 'Whoever bears his pain patiently, while still being truthful, God will grant him a reward equivalent to the reward of a hundred martyrs.'" (Sahih Bukhari) The battle began with individual duels between the two sides, and then escalated into a full-scale battle. The Muslims initially gained the upper hand, and were able to drive back the Quraysh forces. However, the archers, who had been ordered to stay in position, disobeyed the Prophet's orders and left their post to join in the fighting. This allowed a group of Quraysh cavalry to attack the Muslims from behind, causing confusion and chaos in the Muslim ranks. The Quraysh were then able to regroup and launch a fierce counterattack, causing heavy casualties among the Muslims. The Prophet himself was injured in the fighting, and some of his closest companions, including Hamza ibn Abdul Muttalib, were killed and mutilated. Despite suffering a significant defeat, the Muslims were able to retreat to Medina and regroup. The Quraysh did not pursue them, and eventually returned to Mecca. Nusaybah bint Ka'ab, also known as Umm Ammarah One of the most well-known stories about Nusaybah at Uhud relates to her defense of the Prophet. When the Muslim forces began to falter and the enemy began to close in on the Prophet, Nusaybah and her husband, Ammar ibn Yasir, fought to protect him. They stood by him and shielded him from the attacks of the enemy until the tide of the battle turned in favor of the Muslims. Another story about Nusaybah at Uhud relates to her bravery and skill as a warrior. According to some accounts, she was known for her proficiency with a sword and was one of the few women who had received permission from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to fight on the battlefield. She is said to have fought courageously, cutting down several of the enemy soldiers and inspiring the Muslim forces to press on in the face of adversity.

623 CE: Muhammad marries Aisha bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of his closest companion

Lings also notes that Aisha played a significant role in the early Islamic community, as she was known for her intelligence and her ability to memorize and transmit the sayings and deeds of the Prophet. She was considered one of the most important sources of Hadith, or sayings of the Prophet, and many later scholars relied on her accounts in their own works. He emphasizes that the Prophet's marriage to Aisha was not a matter of personal desire or pleasure, but was seen as a political and social alliance that helped to strengthen the early Islamic community. There are many Hadiths (narrations) that mention Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her), who was one of the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and a prominent female scholar of Islam. Here is one Hadith about her: Hadith about Aishah Narrated Aishah (may Allah be pleased with her): The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "The superiority of Aishah to other ladies is like the superiority of Tharid (i.e. a meat and bread dish) to other meals. Many men reached the level of perfection, but no woman reached such a level except Aishah." [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 3270] This Hadith highlights the special status of Aishah among the wives of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the level of her knowledge and piety. It also shows the great respect and love that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had for her.

622 CE: Hijra - Migration from Mecca to Medina

The migration to Medina, also known as Hijrah, is a significant event in Islamic history. The migration to Medina is also significant because it marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. The Islamic calendar starts from the year of the migration, which is known as Hijri. Background The Hijrah took place in the year 622 CE, after the Prophet Muhammad and his followers faced increasing persecution in Mecca from the pagan Arabs who opposed the message of Islam. The Prophet Muhammad received a divine revelation to migrate to Medina, where he would find a community that would support him and his message. Journey The Prophet Muhammad and his close companion Abu Bakr set out on the journey to Medina, which was over 200 miles away from Mecca. They traveled on foot and in secret to avoid detection by their enemies. They took a difficult and dangerous route, passing through barren deserts and rugged mountains. Along the way, they were aided by various individuals who sympathized with their cause. There is a story about Abu Bakr and the spider during the Hijrah As the Prophet Muhammad and Abu Bakr were making their way towards Medina, they had taken refuge in a cave called Thawr, which was located in a mountain on the outskirts of Mecca. The pagan Arabs who were pursuing them searched for them in the surrounding areas but were unable to find them. As the Prophet Muhammad and Abu Bakr were inside the cave, a spider began weaving a web across the entrance, which eventually covered the entire opening. When the pagan Arabs arrived at the entrance of the cave, they noticed the spider's web and assumed that no one could have entered the cave recently. Abu Bakr saw the spider's web and realized that it was a sign of God's protection and that they were safe from the pagan Arabs' pursuit. He was filled with a sense of gratitude and awe at the sight of the spider's web. This incident is considered a symbol of God's protection and care for the early Muslims during their difficult journey to Medina. It also demonstrates Abu Bakr's deep faith and trust in God, as he recognized the spider's web as a sign of divine intervention and protection. In discussing the verse of the Quran that relates to this event, Ibn Kathir notes that it emphasizes the idea of God's protection for the believers, even in the face of adversity and persecution. The spider's web, in this context, becomes a symbol of the power and wisdom of God, and a reminder to believers that they can trust in God's plan and guidance even in difficult times. Arrival in Medina The Prophet Muhammad arrived in Medina on 12th Rabi' al-Awwal, which marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar. His arrival was welcomed by the people of Medina, who had been eagerly awaiting his arrival. The Prophet Muhammad built the first mosque in Medina, which became the center of the Muslim community. He also established a system of governance based on Islamic principles. Significance The Hijrah marked a turning point in the history of Islam. It was a test of faith for the Muslims, who faced numerous challenges and difficulties on the journey to Medina. The migration to Medina also established Islam as a religion with a distinct community and a system of governance. The Hijrah was so significant that it became the starting point of the Islamic calendar, and it continues to be celebrated by Muslims worldwide. The migration to Medina marked a turning point in the history of Islam. The Prophet Muhammad was able to establish a community of Muslims in Medina, which became the first Islamic state. The Muslims were able to practice their religion freely and establish a new society based on the principles of Islam. The Prophet Muhammad was also able to build alliances with the various tribes in Medina and establish a strong political and social structure.

Persecution and the boycott of early Muslims

The early Muslims in Mecca faced severe persecution and discrimination from the non-Muslim Meccans, particularly from the leaders of the Quraysh tribe. This persecution took various forms, including physical abuse, social boycott, and economic sanctions. One of the most notable instances of persecution was the boycott imposed on the Muslims by the Meccans in the year 616 CE. The boycott was a joint effort by the leaders of the Quraysh tribe to isolate and weaken the Muslims by imposing a social and economic embargo on them. The boycott was so severe that the Muslims were forced to live in a valley outside of Mecca known as Shi'b Abi Talib, where they suffered from hunger and deprivation for three years. During this time, Prophet Muhammad's uncle, Abu Talib, protected the Muslims by providing them with food and other necessities. However, when Abu Talib died in 619 CE, the Meccans intensified their persecution of the Muslims. Muslims were also subjected to physical abuse, including beatings, torture, and even murder. Some of the earliest converts to Islam, such as Bilal ibn Rabah and Sumayyah bint Khayyat, were subjected to particularly brutal treatment because of their low social status and vulnerability. Despite the persecution, the Muslims remained steadfast in their faith and continued to spread the message of Islam. Eventually, the persecution became so severe that Prophet Muhammad and many of his followers were forced to leave Mecca and seek refuge in the city of Medina. This event, known as the Hijra, marked a turning point in the history of Islam and ultimately led to the establishment of the first Islamic state in Medina.

624 CE: The Battle of Badr

On the night before the battle of Badr, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) made a supplication to Allah, saying, "O Allah! If this group (of Muslims) is destroyed, then there will be none left on the earth to worship You." [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 4114] According to Lings, the Battle of Badr took place on the 17th of Ramadan in the second year of the Hijra (624 CE). The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his companions had left Medina with the intention of intercepting a caravan of the Quraish tribe that was returning from Syria. The Quraish, upon learning of the Muslim army's intentions, sent a larger force to protect the caravan, and the two armies met at Badr. The Muslim army, consisting of around 313 men, was significantly outnumbered and had inferior equipment compared to the Quraysh army, which numbered around 1,000 men. The two armies met at Badr, a valley near Medina. The Muslims had taken a defensive position by a well, while the Quraysh had taken up position on the other side of the valley. The battle began with individual duels between the two sides, and then escalated into a full-scale battle. Despite being outnumbered, the Muslims fought fiercely and were able to break through the Quraysh lines. Many of the Quraysh leaders, including Abu Jahl, were killed in the battle. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, "Verily, Allah has given you victory through Badr, one of the angels of Allah came down and addressed me, saying, 'O Muhammad! Allah has heard what your people have said to you and the reply that you have given them. Allah has sent the Angel of the Mountains to you so that you may order him to do whatever you wish to these people.' The Angel of the Mountains greeted me, saying, 'O Muhammad! Order what you want. If you like, I will crush them between the two mountains of Makkah.' But the Prophet said, 'No, I hope that Allah will produce from their progeny people who will worship Allah alone, and will not ascribe any partners to Him.'" [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 2869] It is narrated that during the Battle of Badr, the angels descended from the heavens to support the Muslims. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, "I saw Jibril (the angel Gabriel) holding the reins of a horse and another angel holding the reins of another horse. They had dust on their heads and their feet, and Jibril said, 'We have come to your aid, O Messenger of Allah!'" [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 2984] The Quraysh smarted at having lost several men before the battle had even begun. They charged at the Muslims, who, encouraged by their early success, faced the onslaught without flinching. Proclaiming Allah’s Oneness, the Muslims cried out: “Ahad! Ahad!” [One! One!] The Prophet (ﷺ) was engaged in dua and Allah (ﷻ) responded to his prayers by sending an army of one thousand Angels. These supernatural allies were visible to the Prophet (ﷺ) who turned to Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) and said, “Rejoice, O Abu Bakr, Allah’s help has come. This is Jibraeel, moving ahead with his horse’s bridle in his hand. His garments are besmeared with dirt and dust.” The Prophet (ﷺ) then marched forward toward the fray, and at that moment the following verse was revealed: “Soon will the multitude be put to fight, and they will show their backs.” [54:45] He then took a handful of dust and threw it at the Quraysh saying, “Let their faces be disfigured.” The dust flew into the eyes and noses of the Quraysh, as mentioned in the Quran: “It was not you who threw, but Allah.” [8:17] The Prophet (ﷺ) ordered his men to attack, crying out, “Rise!”. The Muslims, outnumbered three to one, were inspired when they saw that the Prophet (ﷺ) himself was present among them and ready to fight. Supported by the invisible army of angels, the Muslims swarmed over the Quraysh. The Quraysh fell one after another, and soon they retreated in disarray. The Muslims followed in pursuit, slaying some and capturing others. Satan, who was also present in the guise of Suraqa bin Malik, saw the army of angels, and escaped by plunging into the Red Sea. One of the most famous hadiths about the battle of Badr is the story of the companion Umayr ibn Al-Humam, who asked the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) if he would enter paradise if he fought and was killed in the battle. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) replied, "Yes, if you are killed in the cause of Allah with patience and seeking His pleasure, and not turning your back to the enemy." Umayr then threw down some dates that he was eating and said, "Then what am I waiting for? Let's go, let's go!" He fought bravely in the battle and was eventually killed. [Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith 2865]

626 CE: The Battle of the Trench

The Battle of the Trench began when a group of Jews from the tribe of Banu Nadir plotted to assassinate the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and overthrow the Muslim government in Medina. The Prophet was warned of the plot and decided to preemptively strike at the Jewish tribe, leading to a siege of their fortress. In response, the Banu Qurayza tribe, who had previously been allied with the Muslims, broke their treaty and joined forces with the confederates to attack the Muslim community. The Muslims, under the leadership of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), dug a trench around the city to defend against the approaching enemy forces. The battle lasted for several weeks, with the Muslim forces facing significant challenges due to the harsh weather and lack of resources. However, through their perseverance and faith, they were able to overcome these obstacles and ultimately emerged victorious. One of the key factors in the Muslim victory was the role of Salman al-Farsi, a companion of the Prophet who suggested digging the trench as a defensive measure. Lings notes that this strategy proved highly effective in repelling the enemy forces and protecting the Muslim community from harm. Overall, the Battle of the Trench was a significant moment in Islamic history, demonstrating the strength and resilience of the early Muslim community in the face of adversity.

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610 CE: At the age of 40, Muhammad (Pbuh) receives his first revelation

The first revelation Prophet Muhammad used to retreat to this cave for spiritual contemplation and reflection. It was during one of these retreats that he had a profound experience that would change his life and the course of history forever. As he was meditating, the Angel Gabriel suddenly appeared before him and commanded him to "Read!" Prophet Muhammad, who was illiterate, replied, "I cannot read." The Angel Gabriel then embraced him tightly, and after releasing him, repeated the command to read. Prophet Muhammad again replied that he could not read. The angel embraced him again and released him, and then repeated the command for the third time, saying: "Read in the name of your Lord who created; created man from a clot. Read, for your Lord is most Generous, who teaches by means of the pen, teaches man what he does not know." (Quran 96:1-5) Prophet Muhammad then recited these words, and they became the first verses of the Quran to be revealed to him. The first revelation was a transformative experience for Prophet Muhammad, and he was deeply shaken by it. He immediately returned home to his wife Khadija and told her of his experience. She reassured him that it was a divine revelation and that God would not let any harm come to him. This was the beginning of his prophetic mission, and he went on to preach the message of Islam to the people of Mecca and beyond. The following revelations Over the next 23 years, more than 6,000 verses of the Quran were revealed to him, forming the basis of the Islamic faith. The revelation continued over the course of Prophet Muhammad's prophethood, with verses being revealed to him in response to specific events and circumstances. The early revelations focused on the unity of God and the need for humanity to worship Him alone, while later revelations dealt with matters of law, morality, and social organization. Prophet Muhammad would often receive revelations while in a state of trance or ecstasy, and he would immediately dictate them to his companions, who would then memorize and recite them to others. The Quran was eventually compiled into a single book during the caliphate of Abu Bakr, following the death of Prophet Muhammad. The revelation of the Quran was a transformative event in the history of Islam, providing a clear and unambiguous message of God's guidance for humanity. The Quran has been a source of inspiration and guidance for Muslims throughout the centuries, shaping their beliefs, practices, and worldview.

620 CE: Muhammad experiences the Night Journey

Hadith One of the most detailed hadiths about the Night Journey (Isra and Mi'raj) of Prophet Muhammad is narrated by Anas bin Malik and can be found in Sahih al-Bukhari, one of the most authentic collections of hadiths in Islam. This hadith provides a comprehensive account of the Night Journey and the Prophet's encounters during his ascension to the heavens. Here is the narration of the hadith: Narrated by Anas bin Malik: "The Messenger of Allah was taken by night, while he was sleeping in the Sacred Mosque, to the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. He was carried on the Buraq, a white animal, smaller than a mule and bigger than a donkey. The animal had wings, with which it could fly. When the Prophet arrived in Jerusalem, he tied the Buraq to the gate of the Masjid al-Aqsa and then entered the mosque. He prayed there with the prophets who had preceded him, and then he was taken to the heavens. The Prophet ascended through the seven heavens, and at each level he met with a different prophet. At the first heaven, he met with Adam; at the second, he met with Jesus and John; at the third, he met with Joseph; at the fourth, he met with Idris; at the fifth, he met with Aaron; at the sixth, he met with Moses; and at the seventh, he met with Abraham. At each level, the Prophet was greeted by the prophets who were there, and he was given a special gift or honor. For example, at the first heaven, Adam welcomed the Prophet and prayed for him. At the second heaven, Jesus and John greeted the Prophet and prayed for him. At the sixth heaven, Moses asked the Prophet how many times he had been commanded to pray, and when he replied five times a day, Moses advised him to ask for a reduction, as he himself had experienced difficulty in carrying out such frequent prayers. Finally, the Prophet reached the highest level of heaven, where he encountered Allah. Allah spoke to the Prophet and gave him instructions about the five daily prayers and other aspects of the Islamic faith. The Prophet was also shown various visions of the future and the past. After this encounter, the Prophet returned to Jerusalem and then back to Mecca, where he woke up in the morning next to the Ka'bah. The entire journey had taken only a few hours, but it had a profound impact on the Prophet and the development of the Islamic faith." This hadith provides a detailed account of the Night Journey and the Prophet's spiritual journey through the heavens. It highlights the Prophet's encounters with the prophets who preceded him, as well as his conversation with Allah, which is considered one of the most profound and intimate experiences of divine revelation in Islamic history.

Jabal al-Noor Cave HiraStart video at 14:06

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This is possibly what the Ka'ba and surrounding areas would have look like in pre-Islamic times. Egyptian Mohammed Sadiq Bey, was the first photographer to take pictures of the Kaba through the lens of a camera; about 138 years ago in 1880 when he went to Mecca. The interior of Arabia, except for occasional oases, is a desert. In early stages Arabia inhabited only by wandering tribes. Along tile southern and western coasts of Arabia and between the mountains and the sea, the soil is generally productive. The climate temperate, and the rainfall sufficient. In this area the ruler of the tribes (usually known as “sheik”) cities and towns were located. The nomadic people of the desert are known as the Bedouins. The life which they lead in the Arabian wilderness is similar with the Hebrew patriarchs, as it can be found in the Old Testament. The Bedouins are shepherds and herdsmen. They continually moving with their sheep and camels seeking new pastures. Their virtues – hospitality to the stranger, generosity, faithfulness to the ties of kinship. Nothing like a settled government is known to them. Because of birth, courage, or wealth, Bedouins chose rulers of the tribes known as “Sheik”. This description of the Bedouins applies equally well to them in the age of Mohammad, during the seventh century. The Arabs who settled along the southern and western coasts of the peninsula had reached in the sixth century a considerable degree of civilization. Arabians practiced agriculture and carried on a flourishing trade across the Red Sea and all the way to India. Between these sedentary Arabs and the Bedouins there was a constant rivalry. However the hundreds of tribes throughout the Arabia preserved a feeling of national unity. The idea of national unity was greatly strengthened when Mohammad’s appearance on historical scene.The city of Mecca, located about fifty miles from the Red Sea. Throughout periods Mecca become commercial metropolis and the center of Arabian heathenism. Every year the Arab tribes stopped their mutual fighting for four months. Then Arabian tribes went up to Mecca to trade and visit the sanctuary called the Kaaba. Here were three hundred and sixty idols and a sacred black stone Kaaba made of a granite (or meteoric fallen from sky). Kaaba was mention in Quran as Bait, Bait ul Haram, Bait Ullah, Awal ul Bait which means the Sacred House. The granite stone was originally white, but it probably oiled to change color in black. Note that these facts about Kaaba is from earlier history of Arabians because during the periods Kaaba restored many times. Although most of the Arabs were idolaters recognized the “God” of the Semites. For the Arabians God or Allah is the Creator of all things. Arabia at this period contained many Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christians, who influenced in spreading the conception of one God (Allah) and thus to prepare the way for a prophet of a new religion Islam.

The present library located in the birthplace of the Prophet (ﷺ)

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Battle of Uhud Grave of Hamza

Old view of the well of Badr Present day location of the well of Badr Map of the Battle fo Badr

Umm Ma’bad’s description of the Prophet, peace be upon him : When the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, was granted permission to migrate (the Hijrah) from Makkah to Madinah. He was accompanied by his companions Abu Bakr and his freed slave ’Amar ibn Fuhairah (alongside their guide, ’Abdullah ibn Uraiqit (who was a polytheist). During their migration they rested at a camp in a place called “Qudaid” at a time of drought. They requested some food and drink from Umm Ma‘bad, who was a woman live in a tent in Qudaid , but there was unfortunately nothing to offer them. The Prophet, peace be upon him, noticed a solitary and weak goat, which he requested Umm Ma‘bad to milk. Miraculously the milk started gushing milk at the blessed hand of the Prophet, peace be upon him, and they all drank and the Prophet, peace be upon him, left plenty of milk for Umm Ma‘bad and her family. When her husband, Aktham Ibn Abu al-Jawn al-Khuza‘i returned from herding his sheep he saw all the milk. He asked his wife where this had come from and she explained a ‘blessed man’ had passed by us. He asked her to describe him, peace be upon him, and what follows is Umm Ma‘bad’s incredible description of the Messenger of Allah . On the authority of Umm Ma‘bad ‘Atikah bint Khalid al-Khuza‘iyyah who said: ’I saw a man of visible radiance and purity, beautiful appearance, bright faced, with neither protruding ribs nor a small head, handsome and fair. His eyes were deep black and large, and his eyelashes were lush. His voice was mellow and soft. The whiteness of his eyes was bright and his pupils were very black. His eyebrows were beautifully arched and connected. His neck was long, his beard densely full. When he was silent, he appeared dignified. When he spoke, he was eminent and crowned with magnificence. His speech was sweet, his words precise, neither too little nor too much. Like a string of pearls flowing down gradually. He was the most striking and beautiful of people when seen from afar and the fairest of them when seen up close. He was medium height, neither unagreeably tall nor scornfully short; a branch between two branches. Among the three he was the most radiant in appearance, the finest of them in stature. He was surrounded by companions. When he spoke, they listened attentively. When he gave orders, they hastened to fulfil them. Honoured, served and surrounded by followers. He neither frowned, nor criticised’. [Al-Baihaqi and al-Hakim].

Battle of the Trench site7 Mosques Map of the Battle of the Trench

Khaybar is an oasis situated some 153 kilometers (95 ml) north of the city of Medina in the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia. It was inhabited till 1981 (1401 Hijri).

As the time for prayer approached, Bilal ibn Rabah ascended the Kaaba and called the adhan - the Islamic call to prayer.

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