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Hanna Hamann

Forests in northern germany

1. Overview and Development of different Forests 2. forest Types in detail2.1. weichselian moraines2.2. central sandy deposits2.3. holocene marshes3. Human Impact4. Sources



Main landscape types

  • weichselian moraines - east
  • central sandy deposits - center
  • holocene marshes - west

correlating main forest types


  • woodruff beech forestst
  • wood hairgrass beech forests
  • hard- and softwood alluvial forests
  • alder swamp forests

located on weichselian moraines

  • main species red beech
  • ca 35 m, dense tree crown
  • rich ground vegetation, blooms very colourful in early spring
  • deadwood is habitat for many animal species

woodruff beech forests

woodruff beech forests

central sandy deposits

crinkled hairgrass beech forests

  • sandy, low pH soils
  • red beech main species
  • not much ground vegetation

crinkled hairgrass beech forests


  • flooded often
  • wet for long time period
  • lower and close to water level
  • mainly populatet by willows


  • flooded less frequently
  • wet for shorter time period
  • higher over water level
  • mainly populatet by oaks, ash trees and elms

Alluvial woods

holocene marshes

  • permanet high water levels
  • only small fluctuation
  • mainly populatet by alder trees, adjustet to wet habitats
  • home for animals adapted to water

alder swamp forests

  • large areas of beech forests replaced for wood production
  • deadwood gets removed by forestry
  • general loss of forest area

human impact

https://www.ecosia.org/images?q=waldmeister%20buchenwald#id=57B34C9C552F9E71C8325D383E660F7AA05880C9https://www.feuchtwaelder.de/lebensraum/auenwaelder/fauna/https://www.ecosia.org/images?q=buschwindr%C3%B6schen#f=null&id=146D0B7EE1CBD05DF5706152AE5FE12896560492https://www.ecosia.org/images?q=drahtschmiele#id=9368A7C39DB86B5EBC18BBE2295EF6DFC871EE2Ahttps://www.ecosia.org/images?q=auenwald%20fauna#id=D1A0E26083FA057C130736778E5747DC4CEA587Cecture "Ökologie mitteleuropäischer Lebensräume" by Kai Jensen, part two, "Wälder"https://www.ecosia.org/images?q=forstwirtschaft




von Oheimb, G., Friedel, A., Bertsch, A. & W. Hardtle (2007): The effects of windthrow on plant species richness in a Central European beech forest. Plant Ecology 191:47–65Härdtle, W., von Oheimb, G. & C. Westphal (2003): The effects of light and soil conditions on the species richness of the ground vegetation of deciduous forests in northern Germany (SchleswigHolstein). Forest Ecologyhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKvCuQyatbklecture "Ökologie mitteleuropäischer Lebensräume" by Kai Jensen, part two, "Wälder"https://www.biologie-seite.de/Biologie/Erlenbruch

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