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The "mental" cost of child labor:Children who worked each day often received a partial education or no education at all. Hine argued that this lack of education stymied both the potential growth of society and the development of these children.

The "moral" cost of child labor:Child laborers in the early twentieth century were frequently exposed to alcohol, drugs and prostitution at very young ages. Hine believed that such exposure often acted as a gateway to a life of crime.

Hine's caption: John Gibson, newsboy, 13 years of age. Selling newspapers 7 years. Average earnings $1.25/week. Selling newspapers own choice. Smokes. Visits saloons. Works 9 hours/day. John's brother is a messenger who directed investigator to a number of houses of prostitution, on Tatnall and Orange Sts. Location: Wilmington, DE. May 1910.