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Transcript

Key manifesto policies for planning and development

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

PDF VERSION

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

ENERGY

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

Planning resourcing

Review Green Belt policy approach

Expand neighbourhood planning

Locally led development corporations

Incentivising brownfield development

Reversing December 2023 NPPF changes

Improving local plan coverage

Setting land aside for local/small builders

Introduce 'Use it or lose it' procedures for planning permissions, in response to perceived land banking

Quickening decision making

Strategic planning (format varies)

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

HOUSING

Housebuilding target

Retaining Right to Buy policy

Reforming Compulsory Purchase Order laws

Scoping Land Value Capture options

Encouraging rural exception sites

Reforming rental sector

Leasehold reform

Short term lets control

Developing New/Garden Towns

Affordable housing target

1,600,000 homes within the parliament (England)

1,500,000 homes within the parliament (England)

380,000 a year (UK)

150,000

to review

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

no target

no target

devolved

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

Industrial Strategy

Public spending on Infrastructure

Aviation expansion

Railways expansion

High streets policies

Prisons expansion

Electric vehicle support

Data Centres policies

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

Rail freight policies

Freeports and investment zones

no expansion

Opposed pending emissions management

Green infrastructure

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

ENERGY

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

National power body

Great British Nuclear

Further role for nuclear power

Support for renewable energy production (type)

Gas power stations

Home Insulation

Offshore wind, Solar 'in the right places', Onshore Wind

Great British Energy

Solar, Wind, Marine

No, decentralise

Renewable Energy target

Solar, Wind, Marine

Investing in battery storage

Fracking ban and new ban on new coal mines

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

ENVIRONMENT

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

Promote biodiversity

Net Zero

increasing BNG up to 100%

by 2045

accelerating to net zero

pragmatic approach

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

not specifically

New buildings to be zero carbon, with immediate effect

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

ENVIRONMENT

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

Promote biodiversity

Net Zero

increasing BNG up to 100%

by 2045

accelerating to net zero

pragmatic approach

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

ENERGY

not specifically

New buildings to be zero carbon, with immediate effect

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

CONSERVATIVES

LABOUR

LIB DEMS

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

Devolution witihin England

Business Rates Reform

Economic geography policies

Devolve transport decision-making

Enhance powers over community assets

PLANNING POLICY AND PROCEDURES

BUSINESS, INDUSTRY AND INFRASTRUCTURE

HOUSING

ENVIRONMENT

LOCAL COMMUNITIES AND DEVOLUTION

Click on cellsto reveal detail

Disclaimer: This publication has been written in general terms and cannot be relied on to cover specific situations. We recommend that you obtain professional advice before acting or refraining from acting on any of the contents of this publication. Lichfields accepts no duty of care or liability for any loss occasioned to any person acting or refraining from acting as a result of any material in this publication. Lichfields is the trading name of Nathaniel Lichfield & Partners Limited. Registered in England, no.2778116

ENERGY

Economic geography policies

Lib Dems

Working with the devolved administrations to develop joint policies and partnerships to boost growth across the UK.Continuing to champion investment in the Northern Powerhouse, Western Gateway and Midlands Engine.

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Lib Dems

Not specifically. There are policies on water pollution. Including:

  • Strengthening the powers of local authorities to monitor the health of our rivers, lakes and coastlines, restore our natural environment and tackle climate change.
  • Creating a Joint Climate Council of the Nations to tackle the climate emergency by helping to foster innovation and encourage collaborative action.

Railways expansion

Labour

Reform focussed on service and ownership (through Great British Railways - bringing them into public ownership) alongside plan to "forge ahead with new railways and other nationally significant infrastructure'.

Reversing Decmber 2023 NPPF changes

Labour

Immediately update NPPF to remove changes and 'restore' mandatory housing targets.

Renewable Energy target

Lib Dems

Invest in renewable power so that 90% of the UK’s electricity is generated from renewables by 2030. Reducing emissions from industrial processes by supporting carbon capture and storage and new low-carbon processes for cement and steel production.

Net Zero

Labour

Labour will ensure the institutional framework for policy making reflects commitment to reach net zero.

Encouraging rural exception sites

Lib Dems

Encouraging the use of rural exception sites to expand rural housing.

Short term lets control

Conservatives

Pledge to ensure councils have powers to manage the uncontrolled growth of holiday lets.

Incentivising brownfield development

Lib Dems

Encouraging development of existing brownfield sites with financial incentives and ensuring that affordable and social housing is included in these projects

National power body

Conservatives

Plan to build on work establishing Great British Nuclear. Halve the time it takes for new nuclear reactors to be approved.Help the UK to become a net exporter of electricity.

High streets policies

Labour

Reforming business rate system in favour of high street uses, supporting small businesses through the British Business Bank.

New buildings to be zero carbon, with immediate effect

Lib Dems

Immediately requiring all new homes and non-domestic buildings to be built to a zero-carbon standard, including being fitted with solar panels, and progressively increasing standards as technology improves.

Electric vehicle support

Labour

Accelerating the roll out of charge points, giving certainty to manufacturers by restoring the phase-out date of 2030 for new cars with internal combustion engines.

Business Rates Reform

Conservatives

Pledge to enable councils to retain all business rates growth within a defined zone for 25 years, which they can use to finance the delivery of new infrastructure and invest in supporting burgeoning local industries.

Data centres

Labour

Removing planning barriers to new data centres.

Incentivising brownfield development

Labour

Brownfield first through fast-tracking approval of urban brownfield sites.

Railways expansion

Conservatives

Recommitment to Northern Powerhouse Rail. Re-routing HS2 funding to deliver the section of Northern Powerhouse Rail between Manchester and Liverpool, electrification to Hull, a new station in Bradford. Recommitment to the Midlands Rail hub.Pledge to upgrade the line between Newark and Nottingham and halve journey times between Nottingham and Leeds.

Support for renewable energy production (Type)

Conservatives

Treble offshore wind capacity to "support the development of vibrant industrial clusters in places like the North East of England, Scotland and Wales." Plan to build the first two carbon capture and storage clusters, based across North Wales and, the North West of England and Teesside and the Humber, with progress the second tranche of projects in Aberdeenshire and the Humber. Solar supported in the "right places, not on best agricultural land". Ensure democratic consent for onshore wind, striking the right balance between energy security and the views of their local communities.

Affordable housing target

Labour

Pledge to deliver the 'biggest increase in social and affordable housebuilding in a generation'. Strengthen planning obligations to ensure new developments provide more affordable homes; prioritisation of social rented housing; amendments to affordable housing programme.

Retaining Right to Buy policy

Lib Dems

Giving local authorities, including National Park Authorities, the powers to end Right to Buy in their areas.

Devolution witihin England

Conservatives

By 2030, every part of England that wants one will have a devolution deal. Plan to offer ‘level 4’ devolution powers to areas in England with a devolution deal and a directly elected leader, starting with the Tees Valley.

Locally led development corporations

Conservatives

Will use development corporations to support the delivery of new quarters in Leeds, Liverpool and York, as well as realising the Cambridge 2050 plan.

Incentivising brownfield development

Conservatives

Look at extending ‘full expensing’ to the delivery of brownfield housing.

Promote biodiversity

Lib Dems

Ensuring new developments result in significant net gain for biodiversity, with up to a 100% net gain for large developments. Set meaningful and binding targets to stop the decline of our natural environment and ‘double nature’ by 2050: doubling the size of the Protected Area Network, doubling the area of most important wildlife habitats, doubling the abundance of species and doubling woodland cover by 2050. Empowering Local Nature Recovery Strategies to identify a new Wild Belt for nature’s recovery. Strengthen the Office for Environmental Protection and provide more funding to the Environment Agency and Natural England to help protect our environment and enforce environmental laws.

Quickening decision making

Labour

New national policy statements, 'slashing red tape' and building support for developments by ensuring communities directly benefit. Updated national planning policy to ensure the planning system meets the needs of a modern economy for e.g. new laboratories, digital infrastructure, and gigafactories.

Further role for Nuclear power

Labour

Support for Hinkley Point C, Sizewell C, and small modular reactors.

Electric vehicle support

Lib Dems

Make it cheaper and easier for drivers to switch to electric vehicles by rapidly rolling out far more charging points, reintroducing the plug-in car grant, and restoring the requirement that every new car and small van sold from 2030 is zero-emission.

Developing New/ Garden Towns

Lib Dems

Build ten new garden cities

Enhance powers over community assets

Lib Dems

Enhance powers over community assets to help local authorities protect pubs, community farms, and other vital infrastructure.

Devolve transport decision-making

Lib Dems

Devolve greater decision-making powers and resources to local authorities in England to design public transport infrastructure around community needs, including powers to introduce network-wide ticketing as in London.

Review Green Belt policy approach

Conservatives

Retaining a "cast-iron commitment" to protect the Green Belt from uncontrolled development, while ensuring more homes get built where in areas such as in inner cities; no requirement to remove Green Belt protection.

Strategic planning (format varies)

Lib Dems

Introduce a strategic Land and Sea Use Framework to effectively balance competing demands

Home Insulation

Lib Dems

Make homes warmer and cheaper to heat with a ten-year emergency upgrade programme, starting with free insulation and heat pumps for those on low incomes, and ensure that all new homes are zero-carbon.

High streets policies

Conservatives

Plan to change planning laws to support places to bring back local market days and regenerate defunct shopping centres.

Public spending on Infrastructure

Conservatives

£36 billion of HS2 savings on transport projects in the north or midlands £12 billion on top of our HS2 savings to deliver the section of Northern Powerhouse Rail between Manchester and Liverpool. £6.5 billion for transport across the rest of the country £8.3 billion to fill potholes and resurface roads £8.55 billion to spend on 'local priorities' £1.75 billion to fund the Midlands Rail Hub. £1 billion to support new bus routes across the North and Midlands £1 billion of investment and alleviate pinch points on the A75

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Labour

Implement solutions to unlock the building of homes affected by nutrient neutrality without weakening environmental protections.

Electric vehicle support

Conservatives

References success of automated vehicle legislation and commitment to ensuring charging infrastructure is 'truly nationwide', including rapid charging and delivering the Zero Emission Vehicle Mandate.

Rail freight policies

Lib Dems

Introducing a national freight strategy to move as much freight as possible from road to rail, supported by a freight growth target and electrification of freight routes

Gas power stations

Labour

Maintain a strategic reserve of gas power stations.

Support for renewable energy production (Type)

Labour

Increase solar power capacity by triple and offshore wind capacity by quadruple by 2030. Investment in carbon capture and storage, hydrogen and marine energy, and investment in nuclear power generation.

Improving local plan coverage

Labour

Taking "tough action" to ensure that planning authorities have up to date local plans reform and strengthen the presumption in favour of sustainable development.

Enhance powers over community assets

Labour

Give communities the 'right to buy’ community assets to revamp high streets and address empty premises.

Rail freight policies

Labour

Introduction of a duty to promote and grow the use of rail freight

Strategic planning (format varies)

Labour

Sub regional planning to be introduced, 'effective measures for cross boundary working' and giving mayors new powers over strategic planning in combined authorities with binding house building targets. Role of local communities continue to shape housebuilding in their area, but Govenrment would make 'full use of intervention powers to build the houses needed'.

Locally led development corporations

Labour

New development corporations with the power to remove planning blockages for New Towns.

Encouraging rural exception sites

Conservatives

Pledge to ensure rural exception sites support local people into home ownership. Will create a dedicated taskforce in Homes England to deliver on the mission set out in their Rural Housing Statement to invest in regeneration and build high quality homes.

Quickening decision making

Conservatives

Key pledge to simplify the planning system to make it easier and faster to build infrastructure by speeding up the average time it takes to sign off major infrastructure projects from four years to one. Want to ensure any requirements to offset the impact of new infrastructure and homes on an area are proportionate, without compromising environmental outcomes. Want to reduce the cost of infrastructure by allowing quicker changes to consented projects. Pledge to end "frivolous legal challenges that frustrate infrastructure delivery" by amending the law so judicial reviews that don’t have merit do not waste court time. Pledge to reform the planning system to deliver fast track permissions for the building of infrastructure on farms, such as glasshouses, slurry and grain stores, and small-scale reservoirs.

Housebuilding target

Lib Dems

Increasing building of new homes to 380,000 a year across the UK

Devolution witihin England

Labour

Local Growth Plans, multi-year funding settlements and devolution legislation. 'Deepen' settlements for existing Combined Authorities. 'Widen' devolution to more areas, for neighbouring local authorities to come together and take on new powers.

Affordable housing target

Lib Dems

150,000 social homes a year, through new garden cities and community-led development of cities and towns.

Net Zero

Conservatives

Pledge to cut the cost of net zero for consumers by taking a more pragmatic approach, guaranteeing no new green levies or charges while accelerating the rollout of renewables.

Housebuilding target

Conservatives

Deliver 1.6 million well-designed homes in the right places while protecting the countryside.

Net Zero

Lib Dems

Appoint a Chief Secretary for Sustainability in the Treasury to ensure that the economy is sustainable, resource-efficient and zero-carbon, establish a new Net Zero Delivery Authority to coordinate action across government departments and work with devolved administrations, and hand more powers and resources to local councils for local net zero strategies. Strengthen the Office for Environmental Protection and provide more funding to the Environment Agency and Natural England to help protect our environment and enforce environmental laws. Requiring the National Infrastructure Commission to take fully into account the environmental implications of all national infrastructure decisions.

Reforming rental sector

Conservatives

Pledge to introduce a two-year temporary Capital Gains Tax relief for landlords who sell to their existing tenants. Will pass a Renters Reform Bill that will deliver fairness in the rental market for landlords and renters alike. This will involve fully abolishing Section 21 and strengthening other grounds for landlords to evict private tenants engaging in anti-social behaviour.

Short term lets control

Lib Dems

Give communities more control over the number of second homes and short-term lets in their areas. Give local authorities new powers to control second homes and short-term lets in their areas by:

  • Allowing them to increase council tax by up to 500% where homes are being bought as second homes, with a stamp duty surcharge on overseas residents purchasing such properties.
  • Creating a new planning class for these properties.

Public spending on Infrastructure

Lib Dems

Invest in green infrastructure, innovation and skills to boost economic growth and create good jobs and prosperity in every nation and region of the UK, while tackling the climate crisis.

Fracking ban and new ban on new coal mines

Lib Dems

Maintaining the ban on fracking and introducing a ban on new coal mines.

Enhance powers over community assets

Conservatives

Pledge to extend the Community Ownership Fund to help more communities across the UK take control of community assets like pubs, music venues, libraries, green spaces, leisure centres and more.

Business Rates Reform

Labour

Reform of business rates system, revenue neutral but implemented in a 'fairer way'

Further role for Nuclear power

Conservatives

Plan to deliver a new gigawatt power plant at Wylfa in North Wales and work with industry to deliver existing projects at Hinkley Point and Sizewell. Plan to approve two new fleets of Small Modular Reactors within 100 days of a parliament.

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Conservatives

Pledge to abolish the legacy EU ‘nutrient neutrality’ rules to "immediately unlock the building of 100,000 new homes" with local consent, with developers required in law to pay a one-off mitigation fee so there is no net additional pollution.

Promote biodiversity

Labour

Commitment to promote biodiversity.

Renewable Energy target

Labour

Clean Power by 2030. A new Energy Independence Act to establish the framework for Labour’s energy and climate policies including a target of clean power by 2030.

Reforming Compulsory Purchase Order laws

Lib Dems

Allowing councils to buy land for housing based on current use value rather than on a hope-value basis by reforming the Land Compensation Act 1961

Leasehold reform

Labour

Enact the package of Law Commission proposals on leasehold enfranchisement, right to manage and commonhold. Ban new leasehold flats and ensure commonhold is the default tenure.

Introduce 'Use it or lose it' procedures for planning permissions, in response to perceived land banking

Lib Dems

Introducing ‘use-it-or-lose-it’ planning permission for developers who "refuse to build".

Gas power stations

Conservatives

New gas power stations to maintain a safe and reliable energy source for days when the weather doesn’t power up renewables. Build the first two carbon capture and storage clusters, based across North Wales and the North West of England and Teesside and the Humber, and progress the second tranche of projects in Aberdeenshire and the Humber.

Leasehold reform

Lib Dems

Abolishing residential leaseholds and capping ground rents to a nominal fee, so that everyone has control over their property.

Housebuilding target

Labour

Increasing building of new homes to 300,000 a year across the UK, under mandatory targets. Delivery achieved through brownfield urban sites, new garden cities, grey belt land and full local plan coverage.

Expand neighbourhood planning

Labour

Pledge to expand neighbourhood planning across England.

Rail freight policies

Conservatives

Pledge to support the growth of the rail freight sector.

Promote biodiversity

Conservatives

Re-commitment to BNG. Commitment to 'cut red tape that holds back the planting of trees in the planning system' by identifying particularly suitable areas for tree planting where processes and permits will be streamlined. Also a commitment to planting more trees, through Nature for Climate funding and launching a new design competition for urban greening.

Railways expansion

Lib Dems

Urgently establishing a new Railway Agency: a public body which would help to join up the industry – from track to train – putting commuters first, holding train companies to account, and bringing in wholesale reform of the broken fare system. Delivering Northern Powerhouse Rail to connect cities across the North of England.

National power body

Labour

Great British Energy introduced to invest in capital-intensive projects for local energy production capitalised with £8.3 billion over the next parliament.

Prisons expansion

Labour

Commitment to "use all relevant powers to build new prisons"

Scoping Land Value Capture options

Conservatives

Will make sure local authorities use the new Infrastructure Levy to deliver the GP surgeries, roads and other local infrastructure needed to support homes.

Home Insulation

Labour

Warm Homes Plan to invest an extra £6.6 billion to support houshold insulation and other improvements such as solar panels, batteries and low carbon heating.

Review Green Belt policy approach

Labour

The release of lower quality ‘grey belt’ land will be prioritised with development expected to meet new 'golden rules’ to ensure development benefits communities and nature.

Reforming Compulsory Purchase Order laws

Labour

Reform CPO compensation rules to improve land assembly, speed up site delivery, and deliver housing, infrastructure, amenity, and transport benefits in the public interest.

Reversing Decmber 2023 NPPF changes

Conservatives

Two commitments to existing 'national planning policy' in relation to onshore wind and green belt, both of which sit in the NPPF.

Leasehold reform

Conservatives

Pledge to complete the process of leasehold reform, to improve the lives of over four million leaseholders, capping ground rents at £250, reducing them to peppercorn over time. Promise to "end the misuse of forfeiture so leaseholders don’t lose their property and capital unfairly and make it easier to take up commonhold."

Industrial strategy

Lib Dems

Develop an industrial strategy that will give businesses certainty and incentivise them to invest in new technologies to grow the economy, create good jobs and tackle the climate crisis. Launching an ambitious industrial strategy to incentivise businesses to invest and create good jobs across the UK Re-establish the Industrial Strategy Council and put it on a statutory footing, to ensure vital oversight, monitoring and evaluation of the industrial strategy for the long term.Requiring the National Infrastructure Commission to take fully into account the environmental implications of all national infrastructure decisions.

Business Rates Reform

Lib Dems

Boost small businesses and empower them to create new local jobs, including by abolishing business rates and replacing them with a Commercial Landowner Levy to help our high streets.

Industrial strategy

Labour

Establishment of an Industrial Strategy Council, on a statutory footing.

Public spending on Infrastructure

Labour

£1.8 billion to upgrade ports and build supply chains across the UK. £1.5 billion to new gigafactories for electric cars. £2.5 billion to rebuild 'our steel industry'. £1 billion to accelerate the deployment of carbon capture. £500 million to support the manufacturing of green hydrogen

Prisons expansion

Conservatives

20,000 new prison places and four new prisons by 2030. Want to make it easier to build prisons in appropriate places by scrapping legacy EU rules and streamlining the planning system.

Developing New/ Garden Towns

Conservatives

Instead of new towns/garden cities pledge to raise density levels in inner London to those of European cities like Paris and Barcelona and, through locally led urban development corporations deliver "new quarters" in Leeds, Liverpool and York alongside working with local leaders and the community for the Cambridge 2050 plan.

Reforming rental sector

Labour

Legislate to overhaul the regulation of the private rented sector, including ending 'no fault' evictions, empowering renters to challenge unreasonable rent increases, and extending ‘Awaab’s Law’ to the private sector.

Developing New/ Garden Towns

Labour

A 'handful' of new towns alongside a new generation of urban extensions and regeneration projects.

Retaining Right to Buy policy

Conservatives

Pledge to rule out Labour’s "anti-aspiration" move to drastically reduce Right to Buy discounts and instead protect the laws that ensure the discounts rise with inflation and fight any plan by local authorities to abolish the Right to Buy altogether.

Aviation expansion

Lib Dems

Banning short domestic flights where a direct rail option taking less than 2.5 hours is available for the same journey, unless planes are alternative-fuelled. Placing a moratorium on net airport expansion until a national capacity and emissions management framework is in place, and opposing the expansion of Heathrow, Gatwick, Luton, Stansted or London City airports and any new airport in the Thames Estuary

Economic geography policies

Labour

New statutory requirement for Local Growth Plans that cover towns and cities across the country to produce long-term plans that identify growth sectors and put in place the programmes and infrastructure they need to thrive.

Freeports and investment zones

Conservatives

Extend Freeport opportunities to more areas and set out an application round in the next Parliament. Continue backing Investment Zones across the country, giving areas £160 million to catalyse local growth and investment.

Economic geography policies

Conservatives

Promise to provide 105 towns in the UK with a £20 million endowment fund for local people to change their town’s future. Pledge to extend the UK Shared Prosperity Fund for three years at the next Spending Review, before using this funding to support UK-wide National Service.

Devolve transport decision-making

Labour

Great British Railway to be accountable to devolved regoinal bodies. Setting a long termstrategy to integrate andreflect the ambitions of devolved and regional and national stakeholders into a single coherent strategy for the railway, underpinned by regionally and nationally focused delivery plans.

Affordable housing target

Conservatives

Renew the Affordable Homes Programme and will deliver homes of all tenures and focus on regenerating and improving housing estates.

Scoping Land Value Capture options

Lib Dems

Trialling Community Land Auctions to ensure that local communities receive a fair share of the benefits of new development in their areas and to help fund vital local services.

Setting land aside for local/small builders

Conservatives

Pledge to require councils to set land aside for local/small builders and lifting Section 106 burdens on more smaller sites, while ruling out Labour’s proposed ‘community right to appeal’.

Home Insulation

Conservatives

£6 billion to energy efficiency over the next three years to make around a million homes warmer. Voucher scheme to support the installation energy efficiency measures and solar panels.

Support for renewable energy production (Type)

Lib Dems

Solar, Wind, Marine: Removing the Conservatives' restrictions on new solar and wind power, and supporting investment and innovation in tidal and wave power in particular. Drive a rooftop solar revolution by expanding incentives for households to install solar panels, including a guaranteed fair price for electricity sold back into the grid.

Retaining Right to Buy policy

Labour

Review right to buy, to 'protect existing stock' and prioritise the building of new social rented homes.

Reforming rental sector

Lib Dems

Delivering a fair deal for renters by immediately banning no-fault evictions, making three-year tenancies the default, and creating a national register of licensed landlords. Help people who cannot afford a deposit to own their own homes by introducing a new Rent to Own model for social housing where rent payments give tenants an increasing stake in the property, owning it outright after 30 years.Protect the rights of social renters by:

  • Proactively enforcing clear standards for homes that are socially rented, including strict time limits for repairs.
  • Fully recognising tenant panels so that renters have a voice in landlord governance.
  • Repeal the Conservatives’ ‘Right to Rent’ scheme

Renewable Energy target

Conservatives

Onus on energy security, manufacturing and becoming a 'net exporter' of electricity, with a focus on a transition to greener policies, inlcuding through carbon capture.

Devolution witihin England

Lib Dems

Decentralise decision-making from Whitehall and Westminster by inviting local areas to take control of the services that matter to them most.Establish national and local citizens’ assemblies to give people real involvement in the decisions needed to tackle climate change.

Planning resourcing

Lib Dems

Properly funding local planning departments to improve planning outcomes and ensure housing is not built in areas of high flood risk without adequate mitigation, by allowing local authorities to set their own fees.

Planning resourcing

Labour

300 new planning officers paid for by taxing foreign property buyers

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Lib Dems

Not specifically. There are policies on water pollution. Including:

  • Strengthening the powers of local authorities to monitor the health of our rivers, lakes and coastlines, restore our natural environment and tackle climate change.
  • Creating a Joint Climate Council of the Nations to tackle the climate emergency by helping to foster innovation and encourage collaborative action.

Net Zero

Labour

Labour will ensure the institutional framework for policy making reflects commitment to reach net zero.

New buildings to be zero carbon, with immediate effect

Lib Dems

Immediately requiring all new homes and non-domestic buildings to be built to a zero-carbon standard, including being fitted with solar panels, and progressively increasing standards as technology improves.

Promote biodiversity

Lib Dems

Ensuring new developments result in significant net gain for biodiversity, with up to a 100% net gain for large developments. Set meaningful and binding targets to stop the decline of our natural environment and ‘double nature’ by 2050: doubling the size of the Protected Area Network, doubling the area of most important wildlife habitats, doubling the abundance of species and doubling woodland cover by 2050. Empowering Local Nature Recovery Strategies to identify a new Wild Belt for nature’s recovery. Strengthen the Office for Environmental Protection and provide more funding to the Environment Agency and Natural England to help protect our environment and enforce environmental laws.

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Labour

Implement solutions to unlock the building of homes affected by nutrient neutrality without weakening environmental protections.

Net Zero

Conservatives

Pledge to cut the cost of net zero for consumers by taking a more pragmatic approach, guaranteeing no new green levies or charges while accelerating the rollout of renewables.

Net Zero

Lib Dems

Appoint a Chief Secretary for Sustainability in the Treasury to ensure that the economy is sustainable, resource-efficient and zero-carbon, establish a new Net Zero Delivery Authority to coordinate action across government departments and work with devolved administrations, and hand more powers and resources to local councils for local net zero strategies. Strengthen the Office for Environmental Protection and provide more funding to the Environment Agency and Natural England to help protect our environment and enforce environmental laws. Requiring the National Infrastructure Commission to take fully into account the environmental implications of all national infrastructure decisions.

Unlocking homes held back by nutrient neutrality

Conservatives

Pledge to abolish the legacy EU ‘nutrient neutrality’ rules to "immediately unlock the building of 100,000 new homes" with local consent, with developers required in law to pay a one-off mitigation fee so there is no net additional pollution.

Promote biodiversity

Labour

Commitment to promote biodiversity.

Promote biodiversity

Conservatives

Re-commitment to BNG. Commitment to 'cut red tape that holds back the planting of trees in the planning system' by identifying particularly suitable areas for tree planting where processes and permits will be streamlined. Also a commitment to planting more trees, through Nature for Climate funding and launching a new design competition for urban greening.