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Representative fossils

Relevant events




This era is divided into 3 stages ( )


Palaeogene, Neogene and Quaternary


The climate was initially warm across the globe, but then changed with the onset of several ice ages in the Quaternary, shaping modern flora and fauna, including the evolution of early hominids.

Over the last two million years the Earth's climate has cooled and warmed again and again.

You will also find the skeleton of Megatherium americanum, a gigantic South American sloth that welcomes you with open arms at the entrance of the Palaeontology Museum of Argentina.

A large tooth of a mastodon from ARGENTINA, called Notiomastodon platensis, which was an extinct relative of elephants. We know that this mastodon lived at the same time as the first humans arrived in South America.

Many fossils of skulls, jaws and teeth of many of these unique mammals were found. Among them is a very well preserved skull of the mammal Adinotherium robustum.

The fauna

Mammals included rodents and small equines. Their major predators became large flightless birds, such as those belonging to the genus Titanis. In the Neogene, the first primates appeared, including the first hominins, ancestors of humans.

Mastodon, equivalent to the mammoth but with a large number of teeth. Elephants. Hippopotamuses. Lions. Armadillo. Sloth. Foxes. Pumas.

Relevant events

The great diversification of mammals, birds and primates, the appearance of whales and the first hominids. Also the separation of the continents, leaving behind Pangaea and dividing into the continents we know today. And the appearance of great mountain ranges such as the Himalayas.


In the Cenozoic era, grasses and herbs emerged in the drier areas. In the Cenozoic Era, vegetation expanded and diversified, especially during the earlier, wetter and warmer epochs.