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Transcript

Catarina Pimentel

Feminism

Early Feminists

Women´s Day

References

Conclusion

Questions

#MeToo/ Marches

Third Wave

Second Wave

Women and Work

First Wave

INDEX

Timeline

Summary

The 19th Amendament

“The history of men’s opposition to women’s emancipation is more interesting perhaps than the story of that emancipation itself.”

Virginia Woolf

Virginia Woolf

Summary

Feminism, a belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women, has roots in the earliest eras of human civilization. It is typically separated into three waves: first wave feminism, dealing with property rights and the right to vote; second wave feminism, focusing on equality and anti-discrimination, and third wave feminism, which started in the 1990s as a backlash to the second wave’s perceived privileging of white, straight women.

Lamarr

Hedy

Third Wave Feminism

Second Wave Feminism

First Wave Feminism

Early Feminist

375 BC

1848 - 1920.

1963 - 1980

Timeline

1990s

01

Plato's Advocacy for Women

  • Plato argued women have equal capacities to men in governing and defending Greece.

02

Marcus Porcius Cato's Opposition

  • Roman consul Cato opposed women’s equality, fearing it would lead to their superiority.
  • Despite his opposition, the Oppian Law was repealed.

03

Christine de Pizan’s Protest Against Misogyny

  • Christine de Pizan protested misogyny and women's roles in the Middle Ages in her book.

Wollstonecraft

Mary

Early Feminists

01

Enlightenment Advocates

  • Margaret Cavendish and Mary Wollstonecraft argued for greater equality for women.

02

Abigail Adams' Advocacy

  • Abigail Adams saw education, property, and voting rights as crucial for women's equality.
  • She warned of rebellion if women were not granted these rights.

03

19th-Century Women's Rebellion

  • Calls for women's freedom joined abolitionist voices, highlighting the irony of advocating rights they didn't have.

Wollstonecraft

Mary

Early Feminists

01

1848 Seneca Falls Convention

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott proclaimed equality for men and women in the Declaration of Sentiments.
  • They demanded voting rights for women.

02

Frederick Douglass' Support

  • Douglass argued he couldn't accept voting rights as a Black man if women couldn't vote.
  • The resolution passed, marking the start of the women’s suffrage movement.

First Wave Feminism: Women’s Suffrage and The Seneca Falls Convention

Douglas

Frederick

01

Early Suffragette Successes

  • New Zealand granted women the right to vote in 1893, followed by Australia (1902) and Finland (1906).
  • The UK granted suffrage to women over 30 in 1918.

02

Women's Suffrage in the US

  • Women’s participation in WWI helped prove their right to vote.
  • The 19th Amendment passed in 1920, largely due to suffragists like Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt.

03

Second Wave of Feminism

  • With voting rights secured, feminists began the “second wave” of feminism.

The 19th Amendment: Women’s Right to Vote

Susan B. Anthony

  • The Act was one of the first efforts to address pay inequality.

Equal Pay Act of 1963

04

01

Women Entering the Workforce

  • After the Great Depression, women found work in lower-paying but stable careers.

02

Women’s Roles During WWII

  • Women participated in the military and worked in industries reserved for men, making Rosie the Riveter a feminist icon.

03

Post-Civil Rights Movement Efforts

  • Women sought greater workplace participation and equal pay.

Riveter

Rosie The

Women And Work

  • In 1973, Roe v. Wade guaranteed a woman’s right to choose an abortion.

Roe v. Wade

04

01

Publication of The Feminine Mystique

  • In 1963, Betty Friedan argued women were relegated to unfulfilling roles.
  • She co-founded the National Organization for Women; feminism became known as “women’s liberation.”

02

Founding of the National Women’s Political Caucus

  • In 1971, Gloria Steinem, Betty Friedan, and Bella Abzug founded the Caucus.
  • Ms. Magazine featured feminism on its cover in 1976.

03

Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)

  • The ERA passed Congress in 1972 but wasn't ratified by enough states.

Steinem

Gloria

Second Wave Feminism: Women's Liberation

01

Critics of the Feminist Movement

  • Benefits of second-wave feminism are seen as limited to white, college-educated women.
  • Feminism has not sufficiently addressed concerns of women of color, lesbians, immigrants, and religious minorities.

02

Sojourner Truth and Racial Distinctions

  • Sojourner Truth lamented racial distinctions in her 1851 Ohio Women's Rights Convention speech.

03

Distortion of Sojourner Truth’s Speech

  • Original reports of Truth’s speech didn't include “Ain’t I a Woman?” and quoted her in standard English.
  • Later distortions assumed she had a Southern accent, though she was a New Yorker.

Third Wave Feminism: Who Benefits From the Feminist Movement?

info

Truth

Sojourner

#MeToo and Women’s Marches

01

Sexual Assault and Rape Culture

By the 2010s, feminists highlighted cases of sexual assault and "rape culture" as evidence of ongoing misogyny and the need for equal rights.

Burke

02

#MeToo Movement

  • The #MeToo movement gained prominence in October 2017 after the New York Times exposed allegations of sexual harassment against Harvey Weinstein.
  • Many women came forward with allegations against other powerful men, including President Donald Trump.

03

Tarana

04

Women’s March on Washington

  • On January 21, 2017, the first day of Trump's presidency, hundreds of thousands protested in the Women’s March on Washington.
  • Over 3 million people held simultaneous demonstrations worldwide, advocating for reproductive, civil, and human rights for all women.

Interactive Question

Interactive Question

Interactive Question

Michelle Obama

"There is no limit to what we, as women, can accomplish."

  • Womankind Worldwide. (2022). Facts about women’s rights. Womankind Worldwide. https://www.womankind.org.uk/womens-rights-facts/~
  • History.com Editors. (2022, April 8). Feminism. HISTORY; A&E Television Networks. https://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/feminism-womens-history
  • Gender inequality around the world in 2024: special report. (n.d.). Focus 2030. https://focus2030.org/Gender-inequality-around-the-world-in-2024-special-report
  • https://repositorio.ul.pt/bitstream/10451/23703/1/ICS_ACova_Feminism_EDI.pdf
  • National Park Service. (2017, November 17). Sojourner Truth: Ain’t I A Woman? Nps.gov. https://www.nps.gov/articles/sojourner-truth.htm
  • Provide Education. (2021, March 15). 10 ways to promote gender equality in the classroom. Provide Education. https://www.provide-education.co.uk/10-ways-to-promote-gender-equality-in-the-classroom/

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