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EcologyEscape Room

Anya's Part (Biomes and their adapted species + The niche)

Biomes and their adapted species Escape

B4.1.7

Lesson 2

Lesson 03

Lesson 06

Lesson 05

Lesson 04

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Abiotic environmental factors- such as rainfall and temperature patterns determine which biome develops in a particular location

Biome-A large community of plants and animals that has developed as a result of environmental factors

Abiotic environmental factors- such as rainfall and temperature patterns determine which biome develops in a particular location

Notes on B4-1.7

Biomes and their adapted species

Biomes Map

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Climate conditions of major biomes table

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Taiga (conifer forest) Community Features- Annual rainfall 300 - 900 mm but high snow fall Very short summer growing period Temperatures between -40 - 20 °C Climate features- Dominant coniferous (evergreen) trees Low productivity A small number of well-adapted species

Community Features- Annual rainfall 750 - 1500 mm Seasonal, but no extremes temperatures Fertile soil due to leaf fall each autumn Climate features- Dominant deciduous trees Productive during part of the year High levels of biodiversity

Community Features- Annual rainfall 500-950 mm Dry and wet seasons Temperatures between -20 - 30 °C (differs depending on region) Climate features- Dominant grasses Not enough water for significant tree growth; low productivity Grazing animals and a small number of top predators

Tropical forest Community Features- Annual rainfall 2000 - 10 000 mm Temperatures consistently between 20 - 25 °C Nutrient poor soil due to lack of seasonal leaf fall Climate features- Layers of vegetation, e.g. canopy and under canopy Highly productive, i.e. high levels of photosynthesis Very high levels of biodiversity

Community Features- Annual rainfall less than 250 mm Hot days (up to 49 °C) and cold nights (down to 0 °C) Climate features- Productivity very low due to lack of water A small number of well-adapted species

Community Features- Annual rainfall 150-250 mm Dark winter periods and frozen soil Temperatures between -50 - 18 °C Climate features- Not enough water, light, or warmth for tree growth; low productivity Hibernating or migrating animal species

B1.4

What is a biome?

A large community of plants and animals that has developed as a result of environmental factors

A small community of plants and animals that has developed as a result of ecological factors

A large community of humans that has developed as a result of environmental factors

Question 01

Question 02

Why does convergent evolution take place?

Natural Selction

Adaptive radiation

Similar Selection pressures

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Question 03

Which biome has these features ?Dominant coniferous (evergreen) trees Low productivity Small number of well-adapted species

Taiga

Tundra

Grasslands

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B4.1.7

B4.1.6

B41.8 +B4.5

Lesson 06

Lesson 05

Lesson 04

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Abiotic factors-Abiotic factors are non-living factors that affect organisms within their habitat

Abiotic factors as the determinants of terrestrial biome distribution

Examples;Light intensity wavelength Temperature Turbidity, Cloudiness, of water Humidity Soil or water pH Soil or water salinity Soil composition Oxygen or carbon dioxide concentration

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Lesson 02

Which biome has the annual precipitation between 300-350 cm, and temp, between 30-20 Celcius

Question 01

Tropical rainforest

Taiga

Tundra

What determines distribution of terrestrial biomes?

Question 02

Abiotic factors

Biotic Factor

A biotic factor

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B4.1.7

B4.1.6

B41.8 +B4.5

Lesson 06

Lesson 05

Lesson 04

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Adaptations to Abiotic Factors(examples of adaptations in named species of plants and animals.) Press on icons

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B4 1.8

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Coral Polyp: An animal that forms the base of coral structures. Provides shelter and protection for algae. Zooxanthellae Algae: Photosynthetic algae living within the tissues of coral polyps. Produce carbon compounds (e.g., carbohydrates) through photosynthesis, which benefit the polyp.

Coral Symbiosis and Reef Formation(Symbiotic Relationship)

Conditions required for coral reef formation

The close ecological relationship between members of two (or more different species in which both species are mutually benefited

Calcium Carbonate Secretion: Coral polyps secrete calcium carbonate - Forms hard outer structures- Builds up in layers over time. Coral Reef Formation: Hard structures formed from calcium carbonate deposits. Reefs host diverse marine life. Provide habitat, food, and shelter for many organisms.

Benefits of the Symbiosis: For Coral Polyp: Receives nutrients, produced by the algae. Gains enhanced growth and reproduction capabilities. Zooxanthellae Algae: Accesses the waste products of the coral (e.g., carbon dioxide and nitrogen), which are used in photosynthesis.

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Lesson 03

The formation of coral reef is limited due to abiotic factors

True

False

Question 01

Question 02

03

Red mangroves have prop roots that stabilize trees and provide shelter for marine animals.

True

False

Question 03

03

In Coral reef formation, Parasitism takes place- one species benefits while the other species is harmed.

True

False

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B4.1.7

B4.1.6

B41.8 +B4.5

Lesson 06

Lesson 05

B4.2.1

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Ecological Niches

Habitat

The place where a species lives.

Niche

The role of a species within its habitat.

Components of a Niche:

Competition and Niches:

Subtle Differences:

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What is a niche?

Question 01

The role of a species within its habitat.

The role of a species within its ecosystem

The role of a genus within its habitat.

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What happens when 2 species attempt to fill out one niche?

Question 02

They compete for resources and eventually one outcompetes another

They both fill out differnt niches

They become ants

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B4.1.7

B4.1.6

B4.1.5 + B4.1.8

Lesson 06

B4.2.2

B4.2.1

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Adaption to ecological niches

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Lesson 05

What is the word equation for anaerobic respirtation in yeast?

Question 01

Glucose → Lactic Acid + Energy

Glucose → Lactic Acid

Glucose → Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy

Glucose → Ethanol

Which organism fits this criteria?Mainly respire aerobically.Can switch to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is absent.No negative effects from switching.Examples: Brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Escherichia coli.

Question 02

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Ants

Obligate Aerobes:

Facultative Anaerobes

Anaerobes

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B4.1.7

B4.1.6

B4.1.5 + B4.1.8

B4.2.12 + B4.2.13

B4.1.2

B4.2.1

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Fundamental Niche:

  • The full range of conditions and resources a species can use.
  • Based on adaptations and tolerance limits.
  • No competition or predation.
Realised Niche:
  • The actual conditions and resources a species uses.
  • Limited by biotic interactions (e.g., competition).
  • Often smaller than the fundamental niche.

Fundamental vs. Realised Niche: B4.2.12 + B4.2.13 (in icon)

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Example: Barnacle Species:

  • Fundamental Niche: Wide range of rocky intertidal areas in the Pacific Northwest.
  • Realised Niche: Restricted to areas where Balanus glandula is absent or scarce, higher up the shore to avoid competition.

What does competitive exclusion explain?

Question 03

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how species competition leads to niche differentiation or the elimination of one species from the habitat.

niche differentiation

A seven in Biology HL

DNA Replication

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The likely biome at any given rainfall and temperature can be determined from the climograph, .

("Save My Exams")

Abiotic factors such as temperature and precipitation are primary determinants of the distribution of terrestrial biomes. Different biomes have distinct climatic requirements, and their distribution can be visualized on a graph where these two variables are plotted on the horizontal and vertical axes. (example of graph shown in another picture)

Average temperatures and rainfall patterns are significant factors in determining the development of a biome For any given combination of these two factors, a specific biome will result Biome development can be plotted on a graph known as a climograph, with mean annual rainfall and temperature on its axes

("NASA")

- Because neither rainfall nor temperature can be defined as independent or dependent variables, the allocation of temperature and rainfall to the graph axes may vary.- Although climatographs show a clear distinction between biome types, there is a gradual transition from one to another. Other factors, such as soil type and animal grazing, also play a role in biome development, as shown by the dotted lines.

Things to keep in mind about a Climatogram

Tundra: Very low temperatures and low precipitation (cold and dry)Boreal Forest (Taiga): Low to moderate temperatures with moderate precipitation (cold and moist)Temperate Forest: Moderate temperatures with high precipitation (moderate and wet)Temperate Grassland: Moderate temperatures with low to moderate precipitation (moderate and dry)Desert: Very low precipitation and a wide range of temperatures (hot/cold and very dry)Savanna: High temperatures with seasonal rainfall (hot and seasonal wet)Tropical Rainforest: High temperatures with very high precipitation (hot and very wet)

Biomes and Their Climatic Ranges

Marram Grass Adaptations (Xerophyte)

Conservation Efforts:

  • Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Protect critical habitats.
  • Sustainable Practices: Promote sustainable fishing and tourism.
  • Restoration Projects:Rehabilitate damaged reefs through coral planting and artificial structures.

Importance of Coral Reefs:High biodiversity.Protect coastlines from erosion.Support fishing and tourism.Contribute to the global carbon cycle.Threats to Coral Reefs:Climate Change: Causes coral bleaching.Ocean Acidification: Reduces carbonate ions for CaCO3 formation.Human Activities: Pollution, overfishing, destructive practices.

Importance and threats

Mangrove Tree Adaptations

  • The distribution of reef-building corals is limited to the topics and subtropics
  • Non reef-building species can be found in other regions
  • The formation of coral reefs is limited by abiotic factors: (Water depth, pH, salt concentration, Water clarity, Temperature
Coral has a narrow range of tolerance for all of these abiotic factors, resulting in its limited distribution

  1. Water Depth: Shallow depths for sufficient light for zooxanthellae photosynthesis
  2. pH: Low pH dissolves calcium carbonate and reduces carbonate ions, hindering growth. Increased CO2 from fossil fuels lowers ocean pH. Salinity: Freshwater runoff decreases salinity, limiting growth
  3. Water Clarity: Necessary for light penetration
  4. Temperature: Optimal: 20-28°C, best above 23°C.

Subtle Differences

Species may seem to occupy the same niche but have subtle differences: Different feeding times Different food sources or methods of obtaining food.

Diet: What the species eats.Dependency: Which other species depend on it for food.Activity: The time of day the species is active.Location---Where in the habitat the species lives.Where in the habitat the species feeds.

No two species can occupy the exact same niche in a habitat.If two species attempt to fill the same niche, they will compete for resources.One species will out-compete the other, causing the latter to die out in that habitat.

Competition of Niches

Respiration:All living organisms perform some form of respiration.Aerobic Respiration:Requires oxygen.Word Equation: Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + EnergyAnaerobic Respiration:Does not require oxygen.In Animals:Word Equation: Glucose → Lactic Acid + EnergyIn Yeast:Word Equation: Glucose → Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide + Energy

Obligate Anaerobes:Only carry out anaerobic respiration.Cannot tolerate oxygen.Found in oxygen-free environments (e.g., deep soil, deep water).Example: Early bacteria, some modern bacteria.

Facultative Anaerobes:Mainly respire aerobically.Can switch to anaerobic respiration when oxygen is absent.No negative effects from switching.Examples: Brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), Escherichia coli.

Obligate Aerobes:Require oxygen for aerobic respiration.Cannot survive long without oxygen.May perform anaerobic respiration briefly but with damaging effects.Examples: Most animals, most fungi (excluding yeast), some bacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis).