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Transcript

Digital Photography: Basic Digital File Management and Editing

Outcome 1

Metering Modes

Introduction: Section A

White Balance

Focusing Modes

Image Quality

index

Image Size

ISO

Introduction: Section B

Image Sharpening Techniques

Retouching

Image FIle Compression

index

Digital Noise

Colour Correction

Image Resizing

Simple Layers/Adjustment Layers

RAW Files

TIFF Files

Introduction: Section C

index

JPEG

The End

INTRODUCTION: Digital camera Setting

(a) Identify and describe key controls of camera settings in preparing a digital camera for taking a photograph..

In this section I will cover the setting you can use to help set up any digital camera regardless of brand. Every DSLR has the same core setting that you should check everytime you go to check before snapping your shots.I will cover the following setting and explain how to set them up correctly and how they effect an image.• Image Quality • Image Size • ISO • White Balance • Focus Modes • Metering Modes

This is just one example of what can contribute to the quality of an image. The more detail you can store from the image, the better the image quality should be.An example of something that could decrease your image quality is cropping in an image that is already been compress, i.e. a jpeg. Cropping an image too much will result in a low resolution image.Bottom line is the more pixels include the better quality the image will be

The quality of any image you take has a number of different factors to make it a high resolution image.One of the main setting to help with the quality is chosing what type of file you want your image to be stored as. Jpegs typically are small and the camera will compress the image getting rid of detials before you ever see the image. these are good for making quick contact sheets or when you first start out to let you have more shots per SD card.The other main option is shooting in RAW. These files are typically large and will store every detail, allowing you do more in editing i.e. if an image is underexposed or overexposed, you would be able to fix that in camera raw.

Wikipedia describes image quality as the level of accuracy with which different imaging systems capture, process, store, compress, transmit and display the signals that form an image. Another definition refers to image quality as "the weighted combination of all of the visually significant attributes of an image".

Image size is typically decided based on the use of the image. Social media wouold require a large scale image as it would compress it when uploaded. When printing you can really scale up to the required size and if you're image is high resolution, it should print beautifully.

Image Size

ISO

ISO is deteremined based on the conditions in which you take your image. Be it sunny day, studio lighting or night time,the brighter your lighting is the lower your ISO will be, the darker you lighting situation the higher the ISO will be.High ISO will cause what we know as 'Grain' which is just digital noise, almost like specks on the image. This is due to poor lighting and the camera struggling to pick it up.We now have tools like denoise in photoshop that will use AI to remove grain but this only works if you shot in the RAW file type.

100 ISO = studio lighting

200 ISO = Sunny Day

400 ISO = Cloudy Day

800 ISO = evening lighting

1600 ISO = Nightime lighting

3200 ISO = Concert/Light Trails ext.

ISO controls how much light your sensor picks up!

To understand White balance its good to be fimailar with the Kelvin scale. This scale determines the temperture of an image or how warm or cold the colours will turn out in your images. by adjusting the white balance settings you can control how warm or cold something in your image is.

'White balance refers to the color temperature at which white objects on film actually look white. But it's not just about the appearance of white; all the colors in your shot are determined by how you set your white balance.

Auto - A simple fail safe mode for quick picture taking. However this means the camera is chosing what it thinks is best and your colours could change image to image.Incanndescent - This is the closest to match for regular domestic lighting, and will correct the colour match much more efffectively than Auto White Balance.Fluorescent - This comes in many different types and current DSLRs offer no fewer then seven alternatives, so some trial and error may be needed.Direct Sunlight - Calibrated to give neautral colours under midday sun - and you can use it as a fixed standrad for recording sunlight, and using this preset can prevent skin tones turning 'cold'.

Cloudy - Light has a cooler tone under a cloudy sky, and this preset will warm up the colours. its good for portraits but can be too much for landscapes.Shade - This is designed for open shade under a blue sky. This preset will give you natrual-looking skin tones.K - More advanced DSLRs let you set the white balance colour temperture manually - useful with some Studio Lighting .

Focus

Modes

Camera autofocus modes (also known as AF Modes) become more advanced each passing year. Autofocus improves with each new camera body – tracking speeds get better, focusing becomes more accurate, and new modes allow you to track everything from a flying bird to the eye of a football player. Unfortunately, while camera manufacturers offer many of the same choices, they don’t collaborate when designing their systems. Nikon, Canon, Sony, and others often use different terms for similar AF settings in-camera.

Manual focus - this setting allows you complete control on what you want to focus on, this however is the hardest setting to use and take alot of practice to use effectively.

Single autofocus mode (AF single) is the most basic option available. By selecting the single autofocus, your camera will lock the focus on the subject that you want to photograph.

Autofocus Hybrid or Automatic AF for those times where you aren’t certain whether to go with single or continuous autofocus mode. Using Automatic AF, once your camera detects subject motion, it’ll switch to AF continuous to track them, and then switch back to AF single once they pause.

Continuous autofocus (AF continuous) modes are the best AF modes for moving subjects. Once you’ve set your focus, your camera will continue to track the subject, even if they move around within the frame.

Metering

Modes

Metering is how your camera evaluates the light of a scene to determine the correct shutter speed, aperture, or ISO. Back in the old days of photography, cameras were not equipped with a light “meter”, which is a sensor that measures the amount and intensity of light. Photographers had to use hand-held light meters to determine the optimal exposure. Obviously, because the work was shot on film, they could not preview or see the results immediately, which is why they religiously relied on those light meters.

Matrix Metering or Evaluative Metering mode is the default metering mode on most digital cameras. It works by dividing the entire frame into multiple “zones”, which are then all analyzed on an individual basis for light and dark tones.

Using the whole frame for determining the correct exposure is not always desirable. What if you are trying to take a headshot of a person with the sun behind? This is where center-weighted metering comes in handy.

Many cameras also have a highlight priority metering mode, which has an indicator icon similar to that of spot metering but with a star beside it. Highlight priority metering aggressively protects the highlights in your shots. This can be very useful if you have some brighter areas near your subject that you don’t want to overexpose.

Spot Metering only evaluates the light around your focus point and ignores everything else. It evaluates a single zone/cell and calculates exposure based on that single area, nothing else.

INTRODUCTION: Digital camera Setting

(b) Identify all the following key editing software controls, and then describe at least three.

I will cover the following editing software controls and explain how to use them correctly and how they effect an image.• Image file compression • Digital noise • Image resizing • Image sharpening techniques • Retouching • Colour correction • Simple layers/adjustment layers

Image compression is a process that makes image files smaller. Image compression most often works either by removing bytes of information from the image, or by using an image compression algorithm to rewrite the image file in a way that takes up less storage space.Compressed images load faster than uncompressed images. This matters because the speed at which webpages and applications load has a huge impact on SEO, conversion rates, the user's digital experience, and other crucial metrics. Improving web performance is one of the major ways that developers optimize websites.

Image File Compression

Digital noise is random variation of brightness or color information in images, and is usually an aspect of electronic noise. It can be produced by the image sensor and circuitry of a scanner or digital camera. Or in simple terms, Its specs that you can get on you image due to your sensor struggling to pick up the light in certain situation.Normally you will experience digital noise when you have to up your ISO in dark lighting, like gig photogrpahy or night photogrpahy. Now we are have tools like denoise feature in Photoshop, to use this tool you will want to shot your image in raw (as denoise only works on raw images). which uses AI to remove the digital images.

Digital Noise

Image Resizing allows you to resize a your image without having to having to crop your image. Nautrally when altering the dimensions this can effect file size and Image quality. When an image is resized, its pixel information is changed. For example, an image is reduced in size, any unneeded pixel information will be discarded by the photo editor (Photoshop)An exmaple of why you would do this is senting large files or posting them online. Another is making sure you have sized an image correctly to print them!

Image Resizing

Unsharp Mask is one of the most common ones used. This effect originates from traditional film photography and is rooted in a darkroom technique where a copy of the original image is intentionally blurred or “unsharpened” and then applied to the original image as a contrast mask.You can find this tool in photoshop under filter > Sharpen > Unsharp Mask. Which will open a window with sliders, Amount, Radius and Threshold, you can adjust it as you much as you want.

Image sharpening

techniques

Image sharpening is an enhancement technique that we use to bring out the details, and contrast of an image, making it look clearer and more vivid. We can use a few methods to do this, such as using filters, masks, or algorithms. Sharpening can also be applied to different levels of an image, such as the luminance, the color, or the frequency.

Dodge and Burn

Spot Healing

Retouching

Retouching is a seires of digital manipulations made to an image to improve it visually or adjust its technical qualities.There are many applications you can use to retouch images, such as Lightroom, Infinity and the industry standard, Photoshop.Retouching Tools

Spot Healing

Clone Stamp

Dodge

Burn

Blur

Straighten

Retouching, unlike general editing, is to correct details.

Colour Correction

As the name suggests, color correction means adjusting the color of an image . For example, you can make the dark shadows lighter and brighter areas darker. Normally the goal of color correction is to make your creations look natural and unfiltered. You can use colour correction to brightening certain colours, make the reds bolder or blue deepers or even turn the image back and white.Colour Correction Tools

Colour Balance

Vibrance

Brightness/contrast

Hue/saturation

Curves

SLevels

Adjustment layers are used to make colour correction, add drop shadows, brighten/darken specific areas of an image. Layers are useful as they dont permanently change an image until you flatten the image or export the image. You can hide layers, to copare before and after the edit you made, as well as choose how transparent a layer is.

Layers are used to preform tasks such as compositing multiple image, adding text to an image or adding graphics.

INTRODUCTION: Digital camera Setting

(c) Identify and describe three digital file formats and their functions.

In this section I will cover file types and the funcations of each of them!The files chosen to cover:- Jpeg- Raw - TIFF

JPEG stands fpr Joint Photographic Expert Group and is one of the world's widely used image file formats. This file type is able to compress an impressive amount of deatil into tiny files that are easy to share. JPEGs are really helpful sotring and sharing image files. Almost all social medias require you to upload your files in JPEG format.

JPEG

Raw Files are completely uncompressed and hold unprocessed data, which means it allows us to have every detail in our viewfinder. This file type captures the largest amount of data, allowing us to crop, convert and compress easily without losing details in the process.Raw files are typically hard to open, unless you have the correct software. They require the editor to export them as a different file type, such as a JPEG or TIFF, for easier sharing and opening.

RAW File

ITIFF (Tag Image File Format) is a file type that can hold a large amount of image data.TIFF files: - Have either a .tiff or .tif extension. - Are a lossless form of file compression, which means they’re larger than most but don’t lose image quality. -Work with Windows, Linux, and macOS. TIFFs are not the smallest files going, but they enable a user to tag up extra image information and data, such as additional layers.

TIFF