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Transcript

organic analysis

part 2

Summary

The bonds in an organic compound not only tell us how a compound will react but they also act as an identifier when undergoing certain tests. There are multiple methods of organic analysis that we will cover today.

infrared spectroscopy

Bonds in a molecule absorb infrared radiation at characteristic wavenumbers.‘Fingerprinting’ allows identification of a molecule by comparison of spectra. The fingerprint region is from 1200 to 700Greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, and all other atmospheric gases containing atmospheric gases containing C=O, O–H and C–H bonds. The bonds within molecules of these greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation. This increases their kinetic energy causing the gases to heat up. As a result the temperature of the atmosphere increases, which in turn warms the earth.

examples

The magnetic field can either align with or against the external magnetic field applied during an NMR. The nuclei can also switch between energy levels.

NMR

Nuclear magnetic resonance comes in two types. H NMR and C NMR and they give information about the organisation of the hydrogen atoms in a molecule and the carbon atoms in a molecule respectively. As both H and C13 have an odd number of protons and neutrons they experience a nuclear spin which creates a weak magnetic field.

NMR samples

low electronegativity

inert

volatile

Strong singal

Cheap

non-toxic

  1. count the number of peaks
  2. match peaks to chemical shift value
  3. collate info given

Carbon NMR

The number of peaks in a C-NMR show you the number of carbon environments. Where these peaks are on the spectrum show what kind of atmosphere that is.

The shift value tells you what kind of environment it is

The number of peaks once again shows the number of different hydrogen environments there are

Hydrogen nmr

The ratio of the area under the peaks shows the simplest ratio of how many hydrogens are in each environment

the splitting of a peak will show you how many hydrogens are on the adjacent carbon

Author's Name

chromatography

thin layer

stationary phase = layer of alumina or silica gel spread on metal, glass or plasticmobile phase = solvent

column

stationary phase = glass column filled with powdered alumina or silica.mobile phase = eluent solvent, added to top of column and allowed to run down

gas

stationary phase = capillary tube packed with either a solid or powder that has been coated in oilmobile phase = unreactive gas

Thin layer chromotography

A small spot of the mixture under investigation is placed near the bottom of the plate, which then gets dipped into a closed container containing solvent.The solvent travels up the plate through the stationary phase.The molecules in the mixture interact differently with the mobile and stationary phases, depending on their relative affinity/attractions to each.Molecules with more affinity/attraction in the mobile phase will travel faster up the plate.Molecules with more affinity/attraction to the stationary phase, will travel slower up the plate.After the plate has run, you can identify the different substances in the mixture by using the position of the spots and calculating Rf values.

The molecules in the mixture to be separated have different relative affinities for the solid stationary phase and mobile phase (eluent).Components with higher solubility for the eluent move through the glass column faster than those with lower solubility.Different eluents may be necessary to increase the separation, as different components will have varying solubility in the different eluents.As with thin-layer chromatography, ultraviolet light may be used to show the position of molecules within the column.The advantage of this technique is that large amounts of mixtures can be separated and collected. This enables pure compounds from a mixture to be separated.

column chromotography

The components of the mixture that are stuck to the oily stationary phase, move slower than those that are carried rapidly by the unreactive gas. The component that comes out first is least attracted to the solid stationary phase. Times taken for each component to leave the column are recorded, these are called retention times. The components of the mixture are identified by comparing their retention times in a known stationary phase with a known mobile phase with a database. The relative size of the peak relates to the concentration of substances within the mixture.Gas chromatography is used to identify the level of alcohol in blood or urine. It is also used in detecting small concentrations of substances, for example environmental pollutants.

gas chromotography

The sample is injected into the long capillary tube. The tube is contained in an oven which heats the sample to high temperature and turns the sample into a gas.The gaseous sample moves along with the inert, mobile gas under pressure.

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