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What is it?

Types of Learning

Major Theorist

Major Theorist



What is it?


Adult Learning Theory

Types of Learning

Types of Learning


Major Theorist


Learning Theories

What is it?

Connectivism recognizes that learning is changing continuously due to the ongoing evolution of technology development. Knowledge is no longer bound to a specific person, place, or time anymore but is connected across multiple networks such as people, books websites, social media platforms. Connectivism focuses on how we can learn and grow in a rapidly changing world. Connectivism allows us to make connections with our learning through outside experiences. It allows us to connect with others, obtain information, assess its value and then share it across networks. Connectivism is understanding to build and maintain those connections between various information.

  • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) What the learning can do with guidance and without guidance.
  • Scaffolding Support given through support.
  • Mediation Mediating tools such as language, symbols, and cultural artifacts shape a learner’s experience.

    A Russian psychologist named, Lev Vygotsky, laid the foundation for the Sociocultural Learning theory. He explored and introduced the key concepts of the theory such as:

    Lev Vygotsky

    • Collaborative Learning (Microsoft Teams, Popple, Google Docs)
    • Incorporate Digital Tools (social media, blogs, forums)
    • Self-Directed Learning (Allow students to choose the type of technology they would like to use)
    • Critical Thinking and Decision Making (Allow students to evaluate information online, distinguish between credible sources or biases)
    • Real World Problem Solving (Incorporate activities that involve real world problems that students can solve using online resources)

    Constructivism supports active learning where students are actively engaged in their learning. Teachers should be flexible during their learning process to allows students to use various sources of information and connections they choose to utilize. Learners should have the freedom to guide the learning process.

    Learning in the Classroom

    Memory is not just stored but is formed through active learning. When learners are actively engaged in their learning, they are able to gain insights and ideas from various sources and perspectives, people, and networks to support their learning and memory. Learning is understanding the capacity of knowledge and not what we may already know. Learning can happen outside of the learner which allows for the establishment of memory.


    Motivation and Self-Direction are Key Factors!

    Allows us to differentiate between important information and unimportant information.

    More Connections, more opportunities to create new knowledge

    Adult Learning Theory focuses on how adult learning is distinct and identifies the learning styles that suit them best. Adults need to know why they need to learn something before learning it. A key factor in the learning theory is motivation, when adults understand the why of learning something, it increases the motivation for learning it. Adults like to be viewed as being capable of the learning and have opportunities for them to demonstrate their capabilities.

    The Sociocultural Learning Theory focuses on the social process therefore, incorporating opportunities where students can socialize and work with their peers will enhance their learning process.

    How Sociocultural Looks in the Classroom

    Collaborative Learning

    Collaborative Learning



    Community Based Learning

    Build and Establish Relationships

    Knowles is known at the theorist that had the most impact in the adult learning theory. He contrasted it with pedagogy and was able to identify the characteristics that make adult learners learn differently. The characteristics are:

    • Self-direction
    • Wealth of Experiences
    • Readiness to learn
    • Orientation to learning
    • Motivation to learn

    Malcolm Knowles

    By establishing an environment where learners are actively engaged, will allow for learners to gain new knowledge. Some examples of learning are:

    • Reflective journaling that involves past experiences
    • Group projects with interactive discussions
    • Team problem solving activities
    • Conducting interviews
    • Case studies

    How learning Looks in the Classroom

    In the Adult Learning Theory, adults are self-directed and expect to take control and responsibility throughout their learning process. When adults are actively learning and are engaged, they are then more motivated to learn. Each adult is shaped through their life experiences which influences the way they learn, therefore, making connections through life experiences helps to support their understanding of learning.


    Memory is organized, stored, and recalled through social interactions. When individuals are engaged in their learning, memory is deeply embedded within. A learners cultural tools such as language, prior knowledge, and symbols all influence a learners learning memory and process..

    How Memory Works

    Memory is influenced through social interactions, cultural tools and practices.

    In 2004, Siemens proposed the theory in his article which stated how technological development is shaping the rapid evolution of knowledge. He also suggested that learning is influenced through a network of connections and the ability to construct and travers these networks.

    George Siemens

    Downes contribution to the theory is that he explored the impact of technology and how its implementations in education can support new learning approaches.

    Stephen Downes

    The Sociocultural Learning Theory ffocuses on how learning is a deeply learning social process. SOcial interaction and languages play a crucial role in the cognitive delopment. The theory empasized on the important role that dialogues plays for learning and growth. Students are often paried with a more knoweldgable other so that learning can best be supported.

    Sociocultural Learning Theory

    A More Knowledgeable Other can be a peer, teacher, parent