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Transcript

6 things about

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Abusing Stimulants

Treatmeant

Therapy Treatment

Symptoms

Supplemental Material

Prevalance

SOURCES

1Banaschewski, Tobias et al. “Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.” Deutsches Arzteblatt international vol. 114,9 (2017): 149-159. doi:10.3238/arztebl.2017.0149

2“Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).” National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd#part_2549. Accessed 29 Apr. 2024

3Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th, ed. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. DSM-V, doi-org.db29.linccweb.org/10.1176/ appi. books.

4Benson, Kari et al. “Misuse of stimulant medication among college students: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.” Clinical child and family psychology review vol. 18,1 (2015): 50-76. doi:10.1007/s10567-014-0177-z

5Corrales, M et al. “Long-term efficacy of a new 6-session cognitive behavioral therapy for adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, controlled clinical trial.” Psychiatry research vol. 331 (2024): 115642. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2023.115642

  1. Diagnosis Prevalence
    1. 5.3% of the world population has ADHD which makes it one of the most common mental illnesses in children1.
    2. "2.5% of the general adult population suffers from ADHD1."
    3. ADHD is more prevalent in males than females [2-4:1]1.
  2. Medication Prevalence
    1. "An estimated 69.3% of children with a current diagnosis of ADHD received medication for ADHD2."

above media 2.

The DSM-5 describes mental illnesses/disorders and lists criteria of symptoms needed before a diagnosis can be met. The DSM-5 lists the following symptoms for ADHD: "ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairing levels of inattention, disorganization, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Inattention and disorganization entail inability to stay on task, seeming not to listen, and losing materials, at levels that are inconsistent with age or developmental level. Hyperactivity-impulsivity entails overactivity, fidgeting, inability to stay seated, intruding into other people’s activities, and inability to wait—symptoms that are excessive for age or developmental level3."

Symptoms of ADHD

Stimulant Medications

Treatment

Stimulant medications like methylphenidate are the first treatment option for ADHD. Stimulants work by flooding the brain with dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters. When these neurotransmitter levels are raised it can help the brain to make it easier to concentrate and help reduce impulsivity.

Are people abusing stimulants?

The group of people with the highest rate of stimulant abuse are college students, "the rate of stimulant medication misuse among collegestudents was estimated at 17 %4. College students are abusing stimulants for mainly academic reasons and claim to get them from their peers with prescriptions for such medications4.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Alternate Treatment

A new six and twelve sessions of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for an effective long-term treatment option for adolescents and adults5. Therapy is an option for individuals looking for a way to naturally manage their ADHD symptoms long-term while taking medication is only effective while in your system and may have adverse side effects.

Above are multiple videos to help further your knowledge of ADHD and take into perspective the disorder.

What Don't You Understand: is a short film to help put into perspective how adhd can effect individuals. It is important to remember that this is how it CAN be and not how IT IS for all individuals.

Thomas E. Brown, PhD talks very widely about ADHD covering many topics in a 28 minute video.

7:18-12:59. She does a great job at explaining what ADHD is in just a few minutes. She explains it from a first person perspective as someone who is diagnosed with ADHD and has knowledgable things to say about how ADHD actually works in the brain.

Russell Barkley, PhD, talks about the myths of stimulant medication and debunks them in this 15 minute video.