Want to make creations as awesome as this one?

More creations to inspire you


Cattle Experience Bexar Slaves

Not only were African Americans cowboys, but 18% also worked in a store or workshop. The 1860 U.S. Census Slave Schedule showed at least 30 African Americans were employed by one person and owned by another.

In 1860 there was no commercial crop that needed slaves for mass production and high costs to transport in urban Bexar County. Most of East Texas and surrounding counties needed slaves in cotton and sugar production shown by the darker purple areas. Bexar County is significantly lighter due to the lesser amount of slaves in cotton labor but more than 2/3rds of the enslaved worked as cooks, farm hands, or domestic servants.

African American Arrival

Population Growth

By Analisa Alicea

African American Brought to Bexar County

Most African Americans worked in cattle trade rather cotton. This lead Bexar County to wealth; ranchers and farmers relied on enslaved labor force. Even after Civil War, 1 in 4 cowboys were African Americans.

Sam Jones Washington photo from 1936 San Antonio. He worked as a cowboy along Colorado River before, during and after the Civil War.

Enslavers in Bexar County

There were not many slaveholders but wealthy and influential ones. 1 in 20 Bexar homes in 1860 had permanent servititude of 1 or more slaves. Mayors, lawyers, merchants, ranchers, and businessmen, were some of the occupations of Bexar County's most prominent citizens.In this area there were no moral dilemmas of slavery. Encouraging this tolerance, the wealthy owners could afford to buy more slaves

Rancher Asa Mitchell, Mayor Samuel Maverick, Mayor Juan Seguin, Businessman John Herman Kampmann

To depict the wealth of these men, in 1861 Claude M. Dubuis a French pastor, bought 31 year old woman "Marcelite" for $1,200. This pastor eventually was appointed bishop of the diocese and clearly shown to be wealthy

From 1860 to 1870, the African American percentage jumped from 42.4% to 84.9%. The emancipation helped the masses migrate from rural to urban areas. Including San Antonio, the African Americans sought hope to become rich but instead faced 9 pm curfews in 1865, businesses that refused to serve them, racial segregation and subordination.

Occupations Post Emancipation

Most African Americans sought better living and opportunities in the city but with the lack of experience, education, or resources, they were on the bottom of the socio-economic ladder. The 67% of unskilled African Americans exceeded the percentages of whites, foreign born, or hispanic. 1 in 5 Americans pursued a skilled occupation that may have allowed middle class entry, but over the next 30 years very few have gained some upward social mobility


The contribution to slavery growth was dependent on wealth, status, and environmental factors as opposed to East Texas