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The structure of the plant cell: learn all about the parts that make up this eukaryotic cell.

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Plant cells are eukyrotic cells (cells with a clearly defined nucleus) and they change and divide as the plant develops. In their interior, a fundamental process takes place: photosynthesis. The way in which a plant cell receives nutrients is called autotrophy.

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Eukaryotic plant cells are very similar to animal cells. Both have a nucleus, mitochondrion, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, etc. But they also have some differences: plant cells don't have centrioles (exclusive to animal cells), and they have some characteristics that animal cells don't have, such as chloroplasts, the cellular wall, and large vacuoles.


  • This is where the genetic information or DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is stored, which is responsible for processes like metabolism and growth and development.



  • It is an organelle which is surrounded by a dual structure called the nuclear envelope.

Nucleus: The genetic information contained in each nucleus of each plant cell is the same in all the members of the same species.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum


  • It is mainly responsible for the production of lipids.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER): The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle which is found in context with the nucleus and is formed by membranes which make flattened sacks. In the endoplasmic reticulum, there are two separate parts; the rough part (RER) and the smooth part (SER). The SER doesn't have ribosomes attached to it and its membrane structure is more irregular.


  • It is responsible for maintaining the shape and size of the cell, as well as storing substances.



  • They are very large vesicles that can occupy 90% of the cell volume, displacing all organelles to the other side of the cell.


  • It is surrounded by a vacuolar membrane.

Vacuole: This organelle is made up of water and sugar among other components which are needed for the plant's defenses.



  • They are the organelles responsible for the production of energy in the cell. They produce chlorophyll, which is responsible for absorbing light for photosynthesis.

Chloroplasts: Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, are organelles surrounded by a double membrane. The internal membrane has branches that extend toward the interior (lamellae), where they form sacks (thylakoids) which group together to form granas.

golgi apparatus


  • Responsible for the synthesis and secretion of complex polysaccharides and has a very important role in the formation of the cellular wall.

Golgi Apparatus: This consists of sacks and vesicles from the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, the substances produced in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified and vesicles are generated that will form part of other cellular organelles or be expelled.


  • Responsible for obtaining the energy needed by the cell through cellular respiration.



  • They are large organelles, wrapped by a double membrane: one inner and one outer. The inner membrane has a folded structure called cristae and the outer membrane is smooth.

Mitochondria: It is in this organelle where breathing occurs and energy is obtained from the metabolism of sugars. It uses oxygen to oxidize the organic matter that reaches it, and energy and carbon dioxide (CO2) are released.



  • They contain digestive enzymes with which they perform cellular digestion.

Lysosomes: They are organelles formed by the Golgi apparatus.


  • A rigid structure which protects the cells and gives them their shape.

cellular wall


  • It is the rigid outer cover that is mainly made up of cellulose.


  • It is located on the outside of the plasma membrane.

Cellular wall: The cell or plant wall is the structure through which the different cells of plant tissues are connected.