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Strand: A category of knowledge within the study of a given discipline; here (as in the CCRSAE): Reading, Writing, Listening/Speaking).

Standard: States in broad terms what learners are able to do; applies to all six levels and thus extends across all columns.

Source documents: Indicates one or more of the four documents integrated into the MA ELPS: MA Curriculum Frameworks, CCRSAE, ELP, or Standards.

NRS Levels: National Reporting System levels for ESOL. Levels appear horizontally from Level 1 - 6+.

Thread: A subcategory for organizing the benchmarks within a standard (here: Read increasingly complex texts, independently and proficiently, to carry out real-world and academic tasks.)

Benchmark: Specific skills and knowledge learners need to develop and demonstrate at a particular level to meet the more broadly stated standard; describes exit-level performance.

Benchmark Notation: R1A.3a R = the Reading strand 1 = the Standard to which the benchmark belongs A = the Thread (here: Use pre-reading strategies) .3 = the Level (here, Level 3) a = the placement of the benchmark in the list of benchmarks for that level and thread.